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મોફતમાંઠંડકજોઈએછે?? આ જગતમાં બધુ જ મોફતમાં મળે છે, ફક્ત એને લેતા આવડવુ જોઈએ અને એ માટે પ્રભુના આશિષ પણ હોવા જરુરી છે.

આ બળબળતી ગરમીમય જીવનમાં, હજી સુધી મારા ઘર માટે ઐર કંડીશનર ખરીદવાની મારી ત્રેવડ નથી થઈ, જ્યારે થશે ત્યારે ભલે થતી પણ ત્યા સુધી તો પ્રભુ ના ગુણલા ગાતા રહીશુ.  આજે મને વિચાર સુઝ્યો કે વગર એ.સી. એ ઘરને ઠંડુ કેમ રાખવુ.

સામાન્ય ઉપાય

૧.   ઘરમાં કુલર લાવીને. એ તો મારી પાસે બે-ત્રણ છે.

૨.   ઘરમાં પંખા ચલાવીને, એ પણ છે.

૩.   ઘરમાં નાના-મોટા ઝાડના કુંડા રાખીને, એ ના પોસાય.

૪.  વારે ઘડીએ કપડા કે ચાદરને પાણીમા પલાળી પંખા નીચે મુકી રાખીને.

૫.  ઈંટોને પાણીમાં પલાળી પંખા નીચે મુકવાથી પણ ઘણી ઠંડક મળે છે.

૬.   ઘરમાં જાડા પર્દા ઓ લગાવીને પણ ગરમીને દુર રાખી શકાય છે.

આવા અનેક ઉપાયો અમારે દિલ્હિની ૪૫-૪૮ ડિગ્રીની ગરમીમાં હુ દર વરસે કરતો પણ હવે ત્રણ ત્રણ કુલરો થઈ ગયા છે એટલે બીજી બધી માથાફોડી નથી કરતો. પણ ઘોંઘાટ ઘણો થાય છે અને ટી.વી. જોવામાં અને મહેમાન-મિત્રો જોડે વાતો કરવામાં અડચણ પડે છે.

તો પણ કુલરો રાખવાથી ઘરમાં ઘોંઘાટ થાય અને ટી.વી. નો અવાજ મોટો કરવો  પડે અને આખી શેરીવાળાઓને સંભળાય એટલે શરમાતા શરમાતા જીવવુ પડે, જો કે હવે તો પાડોશીઓએ એ.સી. વસાવી લિધા જ છે એટલે અમારે પણ આ નહિ તો આવતી સિઝનમાં લેવાઈ જશે પણ અમારા પાડોશીનુ એ.સી. ગયા વરસે જ લીધુ હતુ અને બે અઠવાડિયા પહેલા જ રીપેરરો આખો દિવસ ની માથાફોડી કરીને રીપેર કરી ગયા હતા એટલે જીવ ચાલતો નથી અને હુ કોઈ નવો ઉપાય શોધવા લાગ્યો અને પ્રભુએ મને નવો વિચાર સુચવ્યો. જે હુ અહિ મારા અને આપ સૌના ઠંડક માટે મુકુ છુ. જેને એમાં ઓછો-વધારો કરવો હોય તો કરી શકે છે.

ઉપાય નં. ૧

૧.     પ્રથમ તો રુપિયા એક હજાર નો ખર્ચો માનુ છુ.

૨.    આપ સહુના ઘરમાં ડેઝર્ટ કુલર તો હોવુ જ જોઈએ, એ જ આપને આપના ઘરમાં ઠંડક લઈ આવવા મદદ કરશે.

૩.    ૨૫-૫૦ મીટર પ્લાસ્ટીકની પારદર્શક પણ રંગ રંગની પાઈપ લઈ લેશો તો વધુ સારુ લાગશે.

૪.   ડેઝર્ટ કુલરમાં વપરાતો પાણીનો બીજો એક વધારાનો  પંપ ખરીદી લેવો.

૫.   કુલર માંથી એ પંપને એની ઉપર લગભગ દર ફુટ ઉંચે એક પહોળી ગરણી માં એનુ પાણી પડે એવી રીતે ગરણી દિવાલ સાથે જોડી દેવી.

૬.   હવે ગરણીના નીચલા છેડાને જ્યાંથી પાણી વહી નિકળે છે એ છેડે ૨૫-૫૦ મીટરની પ્લાસ્ટીક ની પાઈપને જોડી દેવી.

૭.  હવે એ પાઈપને આખા ઘરમાં અથવા તો જે રુમને ઠંડા કરવા હોય એ રુમમાં ૯-૧૦ ફુટની ઉંચાઈએ થી શરુ કરી નીચાણ તરફ પડે એવી રીતે ઢોળાવમાં દરેકે દરેક દિવાલો પર બે-ત્રણ ચક્કર લગાવી દેવી અને એનો છેડો ફરીથી કુલરમાં ઢળીને આવી પડે એવી રીતે રાખવો, જેથી પાણી ફરીથી એ કુલરમાં જ આવી પડે.

૮.   હવે કુલરનો પંપ ચાલુ કરતા પહેલા ખતરી કરી લો કે પાઈપે ક્યાંય થી પણ લિક તો નથી થતીને નહિ તો આખુયે ઘર પાણી પાણી થઈ જશે.

૯.  સંપુર્ણ ખાતરી કરી લિધા પછી, વધારાના પંપનુ પાણી ચાલુ કરી દો અને ગરણીમાંથી પાણી એ પાઈપ દ્વારા આખા ઘરમાં ૩-૪ ચાર ચક્કર મારે એની ખાતરી કરી લેવી.

૧૦.   થોડા સમય પછી ઘરમાં પહેલા જેવો ગરમાટો નહિ લાગે, અને ગરમી પણ મહેસુસ નહિ થાય.

આમાં કદાચ હિટ ટ્રાંસ્ફરનો નિયમ કામ કરે છે, ઘરની દિવાલો ગરમ થઈ જવાથી ઘરમાં ગરમી વધી જાય છે, અને ઘણી વખત તો ઐર કંડીશનર પણ મોંઘુ પડે છે અને બહારની ગરમીથી ઘણા તો બીમાર પણ પડી જાય છે પણ ઉપરની પધ્ધત્તિથી કુદરતી ઠંડક પ્રસરાઈ જવાથી શરીર પણ પ્રતિકુળ અસર નથી પડતી. જોકે પાઈપ જેટલો પતલો હશે એટલુ વધારે ઠંડક ફેલાશે. એવુ મારુ માનવુ છે.

ઉપાય બીજો

૧.    ઘરમાં ફ્રિઝર તો હશે જ.

૨.    હવે ચાર-છ કે વધારે બે-બે લિટરની પાણીની બાટલીઓ ભેગી કરી લો, નહિ તો પેપ્સી-કોલા ની ઉજાણી કરી લો.

૩.   બધી બાટલીઓમાં પાણી ભરીને એને ફ્રીઝ કરી નાંખો (એટલે કે બરફ કરી નાં ખો).

૩.    કુલર બંદ કરીને ટીવી જોવુ હોય તો બે ફ્રીઝ થઈ ગયેલી બાટલીઓ કાઢીને તમારા સોફા પાસે અથવા પગ પાસે રાખી મુકો.

૪.   પંખો ચાલુ કરી દો અને બાટલી ઓ એવી રીતે ગોઠવો કે એની પાસેથી પસાર થતી હવા તમારી પાસેથી જ પસાર થાય.

૫.   થોડા વખત પછી મને યાદ કરજો…..

મે આવી રીતે જ ઘરને અને મારા પોતાને ઠંડા રાખવાની કોશિશ વગર પૈસે કરી લીધી છે, તમે પણ કરી લો. સગવડ હોય તો વધુ બાટલીઓ ને ફ્રીઝ કરી શકો છો.

ધન્યવાદ પ્રભુ યીશુના આવી બુધ્ધિ આપવા બદલ. પ્રભુ આપ સહુનુ ભલુ કરે….

ઉપાય બીજો 

૧.  આદિમાં (ફક્ત) પરમપિતા પરમાત્માનો (જ) શબ્દ હતો, અને શબ્દ પરમપિતા પરમાત્મા ર્ની સંઘાતે હતો,

(બીગ બેંગની અને જેવી તેવી ફાલતુ થીયરીઓને માનનારાઓ ધ્યાન દઈને વાંચો, ર૦૦૦-૪૦૦૦ વરસથી જગતને વિજ્ઞાનનુ જ્ઞાન આપનારુ શાસ્ત્ર ફક્ત અને ફક્ત બાઈબલ જ છે, એ પહેલા કોઈ પણ શાસ્ત્રમાં જગતને વિજ્ઞાન તરફ આકર્ષિત કરે એવુ કોઈ સાહિત્ય હતુ જ નહિ, અને જે લોકોએ બાઈબલને ન માન્યુ તેઓ એ જ બાઈબલના શબ્દો ઉપર ધ્યાન કેંદ્રિત કર્યુ ત્યારે જ તેઓને જે જ્ઞાન લાધ્યુ એ આજનુ વિજ્ઞાન કહેવાયુ છે, બાઈબલના જુના કરારના પ્રથમ ત્રણ અધ્યાયમાં જ આજના વિજ્ઞાનની આંખોને ખોલનાર રહસ્યો સમાયા છે, એ વચનો જ્યારે નાસ્તિકોએ વાંચ્યા ત્યારે જ તેઓએ એના પર મનન કર્યુ હતુ અથવા તો આસ્તિકોની આસ્થાને પડકાર આપવા નાસ્તિકોએ વિજ્ઞાની બની જે ખોળગત કરી એ જ તો પરમપિતા પરમાત્માની કરામત છે. આજે જે કોઈ પણ નવી નવી શોધો થઈ રહિ છે એના મુળ તો ૧૦૦૦-૫૦૦૦ વરસ પહેલા ખોળગત કરી આપનાર  આ બાઈબલ જ છે એટલે કોઈએ બીજાની કોપી કરેલા નશ્વર જ્ઞાનને આગળ વધારી એના પર ખોટી ડંફાશો ના મારવી, બીજાનુ વાંચીને પોતાની અધુરી ડંફાશોથી મારા ભાઈ બહેનોને અંધકારમાં ફોસલાવી, બાંધી ન રાખો નહિ તો કાળ તમને તમારા ખાનદાન સમેત ખેદાનમેદાન કરી ન નાખે એ માટે બચી રહેજો, કેમ કે જેટલાઓએ પરમપિતા પરમાત્મા વિરુધ્ધ હરફ ઉચ્ચાર્યો છે તેઓ હંમેશા રણની ધુળ બની ગયેલા ભુતકાળમાં બની ગયા છે એ સત્ય તો જગતના ઈતિહાસ વાંચવાથી સમજાય જશે. ભારત દેશમાં જગતના ઈતિહાસ અને જ્ઞાન વિષે એટલે જ વાંચન નથી મળતુ કે વાંચવા નથી દેવાતુ, અને લોકો પોતાની વિખેરાઈ જતી ગાજરની પીપુડી વગાડે રાખે છે, આગળ વાંચો…

૨.    અને (એ) “શબ્દ જ પરમપિતા પરમાત્મા” હતો.

(બીગ બેંગના વિચારો આપનાર આ વચન અને નીચેનુ વચન નં.૩ જ છે, એનુ ઉંડુ મનન-ખનન કરવાથી રહસ્ય આપોઆપ સમજાઈ જશે.

૩.   તેનાથી સઘળું ઉત્પન્ન થયું; એટલે જે કંઈ થયું છે તે તેના વિના ઉત્પન્ન થયું નહિ.

૪.   “તે” માં જીવન હતું; તે જીવન માણસોનું અજવાળું હતું.

૫.   તે અજવાળું અંધારામાં પ્રકાશે છે; પણ અંધારાએ તેને સ્વીકાર્યુ નહિ. 

૬.    પરમપિતા પરમાત્માએ મોકલેલો એક માણસ આવ્યો. તેનું નામ યોહાન હતું.  

(લોકોને પાપના કામોથી મન ફરાવીને અદભુત, અદ્દશ્ય, અતિદયાળુ પરમપિતા પરમાત્માના રાજ્યમાં પ્રવેશ કરાવનાર   પશ્ચાતાપ રુપી જળમાં બાપતિસ્મા લેવાની પ્રથા શરુ કરનાર “બાપતિસ્મા દેનાર જ્હોન” નામે પ્રખ્યાત થયેલા ભવિષ્યવક્તા જ્હોન જેનુ યહુદી નામ યોહાન્ન્ હતુ, જેના હાથેથી જ પ્રભુ યીશુએ બાપતિસ્મા લિધા હતા. અને એજ પ્રથા આજ સુધી અનંત કાળ સુધી પ્રવર્તમાન રહેશે.)

૭.    તે (પ્રભુ યીશુની) સાબીતીને જાહેર કરવા સારુ (પૃથ્વી પર) આવ્યો કે અજવાળા વિષે તે (યહુદીઓને) સાબીતી આપે, જેથી તેઓ સર્વ તેનાથી વિશ્વાસ કરે.

૮.     તે (પોતે) તો તે અજવાળું ન હતો, પણ તે (પ્રભુ યીશુ રુપી) પ્રકાશ વિષે સાબીતી-ગવાહી આપવાને (આવ્યો હતો).

૯.    ખરું અજવાળું એ હતું કે, જે જગતમાં આવીને હરેક માણસને પ્રકાશ આપે છે. (જે પ્રભુ યીશુના રુપમાં જગત પર અવતરી રહ્યુ હતુ, અને આજના જગતને અને ભવિષ્યના જગતને પણ પવિત્ર બનાવી રાખનાર અજવાળુ ફકત પ્રભુ યીશુ જ છે, બીજુ કોઈ નહિ !!

૧૦.   તે જગતમાં હતો, અને જગત તેનાથી ઉત્પન્ન થયું હતું, તોપણ જગતે તેને ઓળખ્યો નહિ.

(પ્રીયો આ અતિ મહત્વનુ વચન ફક્ત અને ફક્ત પ્રભુ યીશુના સંદર્ભમાં લખાયુ છે, ધ્યાન આપવા વિનંતી કરુ છુ. )

૧૧.    તે પોતાનાં (જ સંતાનો) ની પાસે આવ્યો, પણ પોતાના (લોકો) એ તેનો અંગીકાર કર્યો નહિ.

(*જગતનુ સૌથી મહાન દુખી વચન આ જ છે, અને પરમપિતા પરમાત્મા પણ આ વચનથી અતિશય દુખ અનુભવે છે, કેમ કે જગતના લોકોએ હજુ સુધી પ્રભુ યીશુને અપનાવ્યા નથી અને પોતાના મનને ગમતા વિષયોને ભગવાન માનીને નવા નવા મહેલો બાંધીને પોતાના પગ ઉપર કુહાડી મારીને લંગડા બની લંગડાતા લંગડાતા ખુવાર થઈ રહ્યા છે. )

૧૨.    પણ જેટલાંએ “તેનો” અંગીકાર કર્યો, એટલે જેટલાં “તેના” નામ પર વિશ્વાસ કરે છે. તેટલાને “તેણે” પરમપિતા પરમાત્મા ના સંતાન બનવાનો અધિકાર આપ્યો.

૧૩.    “તેઓ” લોહીથી નહિ કે, દેહની ઈરછાથી નહિ કે, માણસની ઈચ્છાથી નહિ, પણ પરમપિતાની ઈચ્છા થી જ જન્મ પામ્યાં.

૧૪.    “શબ્દ સદેહ થઈ” ને આપણા વચ્ચે વસ્યો (અને પરમપિતા પરમાત્મા-બાપના “એકમાત્ર  દીકરા” ના મહિમા જેવો તેનો મહિમા અમે દીઠો), તે (જગતના બાપની) કૃપા તથા સત્યતાથી ભરપૂર હતો.

૧૫.    ભવિષ્યવક્તા યોહાનને “તે” ના વિષે ગવાહી આપે છે અને ઘાંટો પાડતાં કહે છે કે, “જે” ના વિષે મેં કહ્યું છે કે, મારી પાછળ “જે” આવે છે “તે” મારી આગળ થયો છે, કેમ કે મારી આગાઉ (યુગો યુગોથી હયાત) હતો, “તે એ” જ છે.

૧૬.     કેમ કે અમે સર્વએ “તે” ની ભરપૂરીમાંથી (જ) કૃપા પર કૃપા (મેળવવા) પામ્યા.

૧૭.   કેમ કે નિયમશાસ્ત્ર-બાઈબલ મૂસાનબી મારફતે આપવામાં આવ્યું; “પણ” કૃપા તથા સત્યતા (તો ફક્ત અને ફક્ત) ઈસુ ખ્રિસ્તની મારફતે (જ) આવી.

૧૮.   પરમપિતા પરમાત્માને કોઈ માણસે કદી દીઠો નથી; એકમાત્ર દીકરો કે,જે પરમપિતા પ્રરમાત્મા-બાપની ગોદમાં છે, “તેણે” (જ)  “તે” ને (પરમાત્માને) પ્રગટ કર્યો છે. 

૧૯.     જયારે યહૂદીઓને યરૂશાલેમથી યાજકોને ત્થા લેવીઓને ભવિષ્યવક્તા યોહાન્ના પાસે એવું પૂછવા મોકલ્યા કે, તું કોણ છે? ત્યારે તેની ગવાહી આ હતીઃ 

૨૦.     એટલે તેણે કબૂલ કર્યું, અને નકાર કર્યો નહિ; પણ કબૂલ કર્યું કે, હું તો “ખ્રિસ્ત” નથી. 

૨૧.    તેઓએ તેને પૂછયું, તો શું? તુ એલિયા છે? તે કહે છે કે, “હૂં તે નથી.” શું તું તે (આવનાર) પ્રબોધક છે? તેણે તેઓને ઉત્તર આપ્યો કે, “ના.”

૨૨.     માટે તેઓએ તેને પૂછયું, તુ કોણ છે? કે જેઓએ અમને મોકલ્યા તેઓને અમે ઉત્તર આપીએ. તું પોતાના વિષે શું કહે છે? 

૨૩.     તેણે કહ્યું કે, યશાયાહ પ્રબોધકે જે કહ્યું કે, “પ્રભુનો માર્ગ પાધરો કરો, તે પ્રમાણે રાનમાં ઘાટો પાડનાર (પરમપિતા પરમાત્મા) ની જ વાણી હું છું.”  

૨૪.    ફરોશીઓ પાસેથી તેઓને મોકલવામાં આવ્યા હતા.       

૨૫.    તેઓએ તેને પૂછયું કે, જો તું ખ્રિસ્ત નથી, અથવા એલિયા નથી, અથવા તે (આવનાર) પ્રબોધક નથી, તો તું બાપ્તિસ્મા શા માટે કરે છે?

૨૬.    યોહાને તેઓને ઉત્તર આપ્યો કે, હું તો ફક્ત પાણીથી બાપ્તિસ્મા કરું છું; પણ તમારી વચ્ચે જ “એક” ઊભો છે, તેને તમે ઓળખતા નથી;

૨૭.   તે મારી પાછળ જ આવે છે; અને તેના ચંપલની વાધરી છોડવા હું યો્ગ્ય પણ નથી.

૨૮.    યર્દનને પેલે પાર બેથનિયામાં જયાં યોહાન બાપ્તિસ્મા કરતો હતો, ત્યાં એ બિનાઓ બની.

(હે પરમપિતા પરમાત્મા લોકોની આત્મિક આંખો ખોલી નાખો, જેથી તેઓ પ્રભુ યીશુને ઓળખી અને જાણી શકે અને નરકમાં નાશ થવા ન પામે પણ તમારી પાસે આવવા પામે કેમ કે પ્રભુ યીશુ જ માર્ગ જીવન અને સત્ય છે અને તમારી પાસે આવવાનો એકમાત્ર દ્વાર ફક્ત અને ફક્ત પ્રભુ યીશુ જ છે, સૌના પાપોને માફ કરો અને સૌનુ કલ્યાણ કરો . આ પ્રાર્થના હુ પ્રભુ યીશુના નામે માંગુ છુ……આમીન.)  

પરમેશ્વરનો મેમનો

(મેમનો=ઘેંટાનુ બચ્ચુ જે આ જગત માટે બલી થવા માટે જ છે.જો કે અહિં જે મેમનાની વાત કરવામાં આવી છે એ ફક્ત અને ફક્ત પ્રભુ યીશુ જ છે, બીજુ કોઈ નહિ.)

૨૯.    બીજે દિવસે ભવિષ્યવક્તા યુહન્નાનબીએ પ્રભુ યીશુને પોતાની તરફ આવતા જોઈ ને (લોકોની ભીડને) કહ્યુ “જુઓ, આ પરમેશ્વરનો મેમનો છે, જે જગતના સર્વ પાપોને (પોતાની ઉપર) ઉઠાવી જાય છે.”

૩૦.    “આ એ જ છે, જેના વિષયે મે કહ્યુ હતુ કે, એક મનુષ્ય મારી પાછળ આવે છે, જે મારાથી શ્રેષ્ઠ છે, કેમ કે એ મારાથી પહેલા (અનંતકાળથી આ જગતમાં હયાત) હતો.”

૩૧.   “અને હુ તો એને ઓળખતો ન હતો, પરંતુ એટલા માટે જ જળ બાપતિસ્મા આપતો આવ્યો કે, જેથી આ સત્ય ઈસ્રાયેલીઓ પર પ્રગટ થઈ જાય.

૩૨.    અને ભવિષ્યવક્તા યુહન્નાનબીએ ગવાહી આ ગવાહી આપે, કે “મે પરમેશ્વરના પવિત્ર આત્માને કબુતરની (ભોળા પારેવડાની) જેમ સ્વર્ગમાંથી એની ઉપર ઉતરતો જોયો છે, અને એ પવિત્ર આત્મા એના ઉપર સ્થિર થયો.”

૩૩.    “અને હુ તો એને ઓળખતો ન હતો, પરંતુ જેણે મને જળ બાપતિસ્મા કાજે મોકલ્યો, એણે જ મને કહ્યુ, કે જેના પર તુ પવિત્ર આત્માને ઉતરતો અને સ્થિર થતો જુએ; એ જ (આ જગતને) પવિત્ર આત્માથી બાપતિસ્મા આપનાર છે.”

  પ્રભુ યીશુના પ્રથમ ચેલાઓ 

૩૫.  બીજે દિવસે ફરીથી ભવિષ્યવક્તા યુહન્ના નબી અને એના ચેલાઓમાંથી બે જણ ઉભા હતા.

૩૬.    અને એમને પ્રભુ યીશુ પર જે જઈ રહ્યા હતા, દ્ર્ષ્ટી કરીને કહ્યુ, “જુઓ, આ પરમેશ્વરનો મેમ્નો છે.”

૩૭.    ત્યાએ એ બે ચેલાઓએ નબીનુ સાંભળીને પ્રભુ યીશુની પાછળ પાછળ જવા લાગ્યા.

૩૮.   પ્રભુ યીશુએ પાછળ ફરીને તેઓને પાછળ આવતા જોઈને તેઓ થી કહ્યુ “તમે કોને શોધી રહ્યા છો?” તેઓએ કહ્યુ, ‘હે રબ્બી, અર્થાત (હે ગુરુ) તમે ક્યા રહો છો?’ પ્રભુએ કહ્યુ “ચાલો, તો જોઈ લેશો.”

૩૯.   ત્યારે ચેલાઓએ આવીને પ્રભુનુ રહેવાનુ સથાન જોયુ, અને એ દિવસે એમની સાથે રહ્ય; અને આ દસમાં કલાકની આસપાસ થયુ.

૪૦.    એ બે જણા, જે ભવિષ્યવક્તા યુહન્ના નબીનુ સાંભળીને પ્રભ યીશુની પાછળ થઈ ગયા હતા, એક તો સાયમન પીટર (શીમોન પતરસ) નો ભાઈ એંડ્ર્યુઝ (અંદ્રિયાસ) હતો.

૪૧.   એણે પ્રથમ પોતાના સગ્ગા ભાઈ શીમૌન ને મલીને એને કહ્યુ કેઅમને ખ્રિસ્ત અર્થાત મસીહા જડી ગયા.

૪૨.   એ એને પ્રભુ યીશુ પાસે લઈ આવ્યોઃ પ્રભુ યીશુએ એના ઉપર દ્ર્ષ્ટી કરીને કહ્યુ, તુ યુહન્નાનો પુત્ર શમૌન છે, તુ કૈફા અર્થા પરતર (પીટર) કહેવાઈશ. (પીટર નો અર્થ હિબ્રુમાં ચટ્ટાન-પથ્થરની શીલા કહેવાય છે, જેના ઉપર ઉંચે ઈમારત સ્થિર થાય છે, અને સંત પીટર અને સંત પૌલ દ્વારા જ જગતમાં ખ્રિસ્તી ધર્મ ફેલાયો હતો.)  

વાંચવાજેવાસાથી

નીચે આપેલી લીંક ઉપર ક્લિક કરશો તો સુંદર મજાનુ પુસ્તક ડાઉનલોડ થશે, જે હુ આપના ભલા માટે મુકી રહ્યો છુ, જે મને ન્યુ લાઈફ.કોમ પરથી મળેલ છે, આપણ પણ ન્યુ લાઈફ.કોમ પર જઈને વધુ પુસ્તકો મેળવી શકો છો.

૧.   પાણી અને આત્મા વિશે સુસમાચાર

જ્યારે મે વાંચ્યા ત્યારથી ગંગામાં અને અન્ય નદીઓમાં પણ આવી રીતે જ ડુબકી મારુ છુ

૨.    નવોજન્મપામ્યાછો?

જવો જન્મ તુરત જ લઈ લો નહિ, તો આ જન્મારો તદ્દન ફોગટ જશે, એ ગાંઠે બાંધી રાખજો…. કેમ કે સમય ઓછો છે, આવતી કાલે શૂ થશે કોઈ નથી જાણતુ, અહિયાનુ બધુ જ અહિયા રહિ જશે એટલે પ્રથમ આગળની તૈયારી કરી રાખો.

૩.     આ હિંદીમાં  પણ ઉપ્લબ્ધ છે

૪.    paulp hi2 (ज्यादा जानकारी के लिए, सबसे नीचे दि गई लिंक पर क्लिक कीजीए..)

५.    paulp_mt1 तुमच्या जन्म खरंच पाण्याने व आत्म्याने झाला आहें कां ?

६.    paulp_mt2 तूमच्या जन्म खरंच पाण्याने व आत्म्याने झाला आहे कां?

७.    paulp_mt3 तुमच्यांवर पवित्र आत्मा येण्याचां खात्रीलायक मार्ग-उपाय

८.    paulp_mt5 आपल्या प्रभु यीशु जो परमात्मांचें नीतीमत्व होतो

९.    paulp_mt6 आपला प्रभु यीशु जो परमात्माचें नीतीमत्व होतो (॥)

१०.   paulp_mt7 सहस्त्रवर्षिय राज्य ह्यांचा काळ येत आहे कां? (।)

११.    paulp_mt8 सहस्त्रवर्षिय राज्य ह्यांचा काळ येत आहे का? (॥)      (उरलेली बातमी साठी खाली दिलेली लींक वर क्लिक करा.)

આ न्यु लाईफ.कोम/ન્યુ લાઈફ.કોમ    ની વેબ્સાઈટ પરથી ડાઈરેક્ટ લઈ શકો છો,

દાન આપવુ હોય તો તેઓને આપી શકો છો…….

બીજા હુ સમય મળ્યે મુકતો જઈશ. મારા લખેલા લેખો પણ ડાઉનલોડ કરવાની સગવડતા કરી રાખીશ…..

પ્રભુ યીશુ આ જગતનુ ભલુ કરવા માટે જ અવતર્યા હતા અને આપણે જાણતા અજાણતા કરેલા અસંખ્ય પાપો માટે કોઈ નારિયેલ, કોઈ પશુ, કે કોઈ બીજી પધ્ધતિ છુટકારો નહિ અપાવે એ તો ફક્ત પ્રભુ યીશુના બલિદાનમાં પોતાને પણ ભાગીદાર કરે એ લોકો જ એમના પાપોથી છુટકારો પામી શકે છે પણ એ છુપાયેલા બહુમુલ્ય હિરા જેવુ સત્ય લોકોને ખબર નથી એટલે એથી અવગત કરાવવા અને પ્રભુ યીશુ અને એમના બહુમુલ્યુ અથવા તો અમુલ્ય બલિદાનનુ ફળ દરેકે દરેક માનવે લેવુ જ જોઈએ એ જ સર્વનો જન્મસિધ્ધ હક્ક છે, એ સત્ય લોકોને સમજણ પડે એ કાજે મે આ લેખ લખ્યો છે. જે લોકોને તેઓના આત્મા માં પરમાત્મા દ્વારા ખબર પડી જાય એ લોકો વગર કહ્યે લઈ લેશે, અમુકને સમજાવવા પડે અને નથી માનતા તેઓને પરમાત્મા, પરમાત્માની સોટી વડે સમજાવી દેશે, એટલે જે પોતાનુ ભલુ ઈચ્છતા હોય તેઓ તેમના જ આજુબાજુમાં કોઈ વિશ્વાસુ પાસે જઈને પવિત્ર જળથી બાપ્તિસ્મા લઈ લે એવી સૌને પ્રાર્થના કરુ છુ અને ભારત અને જગતને શુધ્ધ અને પવિત્ર બનાવે એવી મારી શુભેચ્છા છે.

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પ્રભુ યીશુ સહુનુ ભલુ કરે અને કરશે એવી પ્રાર્થના માંગુ છુ અને દરરોજ કરુ જ છુ.

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Josephus on Jesus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is part of the Jesus and history series of articles.

A Roman portrait bust said to be of Josephus[1] Josephus (c.37 – 100, also known as Yosef ben MatityahuHebrew יוסף בן מתתיהו, Joseph son of Matthias) was a renowned 1st-century Jewish historian. Despite being a Roman apologist, his writings are considered authoritative and provide an important historical and cultural background for the era described in the New Testament. Books 18 to 20 of the Antiquities are the most important in this regard.[2]Josephus was fluent in Aramaic and Hebrew. Josephus writes of a Jewish sect led by James the Just, whom he calls the brother of Jesus. Josephus’ history includes sections on John the Baptist, the High Priest AnnasPontius Pilate, and Jesus called the Messiah. There is broad scholarly consensus that the two passages referring respectively to John the Baptist, and to James the brother of Jesus are genuine.[citation needed] A third passage, the famousTestimonium Flavianum found in the Antiquities of the Jews 18.63-64, in its current form summarises the ministry and death of Jesus; but the authenticity of this passage remains contested by many scholars, and has been the topic of ongoing debate since the 17th century. The most widely held current scholarly opinion is that the Testimonium Flavianum is partially authentic; but that those words and phrases that correspond with standard Christian formulae are additions from a Christian copyist.[3][4] In those parts of the Testimonium that are commonly regarded as authentic, Josephus describes Jesus as a teacher and miracle worker, attracting a large following who revered him after his death; but, other than James, Josephus names none of the founders of the Church such as St. PaulSt.Peteror any the Twelve Apostles, nor does he refer to basic Christian doctrines, such as the Virgin Birth, the Incarnation or the Atonement. This led William Whiston to suggest that Josephus may have been an Ebionite Christian.[5]

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[edit]James the brother of Jesus

According to Christian writings, after the Crucifixion of Jesus, James the brother of Jesus [6] became the leader of the Jewish sect that would become known as Jewish ChristianityJames “the Just”, remained its leader until he was martyred AD c.62.[7] The Jesus/James reference of Josephus is generally considered reliable, supporting the historicity of Jesus. It is found in the Antiquities, the first paragraph of book 20, chapter 9. And now Caesar, upon hearing the death of Festus, sent Albinus into Judea, as procurator. But the king deprived Joseph of the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to that dignity on the son of Ananus, who was also himself called Ananus. Now the report goes that this eldest Ananus proved a most fortunate man; for he had five sons who had all performed the office of a high priest to God, and who had himself enjoyed that dignity a long time formerly, which had never happened to any other of our high priests. But this younger Ananus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees, who are very rigid in judging offenders, above all the rest of the Jews, as we have already observed; when, therefore, Ananus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the sanhedrin of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others; and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned: but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king, desiring him to send to Ananus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified; nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Ananus to assemble a sanhedrin without his consent. Whereupon Albinus complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Ananus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done; on which king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him, when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus, the son of Damneus, high priest.[8] The above quotation from the Antiquities is considered reliable by almost all scholars (one reason for accepting its authenticity is that the passage was mentioned in several places by Origen). However some scholars have argued that the very identification of James the Just with the “brother of Jesus” is highly dubious, mainly because there is no corroborating evidence that James the Just was Jesus’s actual brother (see Relationship to Jesus), and because the word “Christ” doesn’t appear anywhere else in Josephus’s works, aside from the Testimonium Flavium which they dismiss in its entirety as a blatant forgery (although many scholars maintain it was only partially forged). So to those scholars who admit that the Testimonium is in its entirety a forgery, a Christian interpolation, it makes no sense that Josephus would introduce James the Just as “the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ”, since he doesn’t mention this man anywhere else in his writings. Moreover, they say, James the Just was an important figure on his own, whereas “Jesus who called Christ” wasn’t, at least not for Josephus, or his roman audience, and therefore it is unlikely that the Jewish historian would have felt the urge to appeal to his so called brother’s credentials in order to identify him (as if Jesus was the more important character, and James could only be identified in relation to Jesus, about whom otherwise Josephus is completely silent). Instead, they argue, the original text which read “and brought before them a man who was called The Brother of the Lord, who’s name was James”, was altered by a Christian copist from the 2nd or 3d century into “and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, who’s name was James”, who simply regarded that “the Lord” in James title was referring to his lord Jesus Christ, and wanted to make that thing clear to anyone who read that fragment. Isaac Mayer Wise believed that while the passage itself was historically accurate, the phrase “who was called Christ’ was the addition of a Christian transcriber.[9] Notable freethinker John Remsburg in his 1909 book, The Christ agreed the “who was called Christ” passage was a 3rd century addition citing the then popular view based on a c. 170 CE work by Hegesippus that put the death of James the Just at c. 70 while the Josephus account puts it at c. 64.[10][11][12][13] Remsburg’s theory that the passage was added in as a marginal note by a Christian copyist and later incorporated into the main text by a later copyist was reiterated by George Albert Wells in 1986.[14] In The Witnesses to the Historicity of Jesus (1912) Arthur Drews stated “In the edition of Origen published by the Benedictines it is said that there was no mention of Jesus at all in Josephus before the time of Eusebius (about 300 A.D., Ecclesiast. Hist., 1, 11). Moreover, in the sixteenth century Vossius had a manuscript of the text of Josephus in which there was not a word about Jesus.” as proof that both this passage and the Testimonium Flavianum were interpolations. Kenneth Humphreys points to the “Jesus, the son of Damneus” passage as actually identifying the Jesus in this passage and dismissed “who was called Christ” as being inserted later.[15] Emil Schürerwas one scholar who rejected the entire passage, largely on the a priori grounds that Josephus wanted to avoid mentioning Jewish belief in a Messiah to his Roman readers.[16] This passage, and the Testimonium are the only two times that Josephus uses the word “Christ”.[17]

[edit]John the Baptist

According to Christian writings, John the Baptist played a central role in the ministry of Jesus by baptizing him in the river Jordan. The historicity of John the Baptist is supported in all extant manuscripts of the Jewish Antiquities (book 18, chapter 5, 2) by Flavius Josephus (37–100):[18] Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod’s army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, that was called the Baptist: for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God’s displeasure to him.[19] The above quotation from the Antiquities is considered authentic in its entirety by almost all scholars. However over the years a minority of scholars have raised doubts.[4]

[edit]Testimonium Flavianum (Koine Greek)

Although there is consensus that most of the writings of Josephus are authentic, the following passage which appears in the Greek version of Antiquities of the Jews 18.63-64 is the notable exception: Γίνεται δὲ κατὰ τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον   Ἰησοῦς σοφὸς ἀνήρ, εἴγε ἄνδρα αὐτὸν λέγειν χρή: ἦν γὰρ παραδόξων ἔργων ποιητής, διδάσκαλος ἀνθρώπων τῶν ἡδονῇ τἀληθῆ δεχομένων, καὶ πολλοὺς μὲν  Ἰουδαίους, πολλοὺς δὲ καὶ τοῦ   Ἑλληνικοῦ ἐπηγάγετο: ὁ χριστὸς οὗτος ἦν. καὶ αὐτὸν ἐνδείξει τῶν πρώτων ἀνδρῶν παρ᾽ ἡμῖν σταυρῷ ἐπιτετιμηκότος Πιλάτου οὐκ ἐπαύσαντο οἱ τὸ πρῶτον ἀγαπήσαντες: ἐφάνη γὰρ αὐτοῖς τρίτην ἔχων ἡμέραν πάλιν ζῶν τῶν θείων προφητῶν ταῦτά τε καὶ ἄλλα μυρία περὶ αὐτοῦ θαυμάσια εἰρηκότων. εἰς ἔτι τε νῦν τῶν Χριστιανῶν ἀπὸ τοῦδε ὠνομασμένον οὐκ ἐπέλιπε τὸ φῦλον. 3.3 Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.[20]The scholarly debate can be broken down into three main groups: those who believe it is authentic, those who do not and those who believe it is partially authentic.

[edit]Authenticity

The first person to cite this passage of Antiquities was Eusebius, writing in about 324. In his Demonstratio Evangelica, he quotes the passage [21] in essentially the same form (he has πολλους των Ιουδαιων instead of πολλους Ιουδαιους, and inserts απο before του Ελληνικου). As is common with ancient texts, The Antiquities of the Jews survives only in medieval copies. The manuscripts, the oldest of which dates from the 11th century, are all Greek minuscules, and all have been copied by Christian monks.[22] Jews did not preserve the writings of Josephus because they considered him to be a traitor. The text of Antiquities appears to have been transmitted in two halves i.e. (books 1–10 and books 11–20). Other ad hoc copies of the Testimonium also survive, as a quotation in the works of Christian writers. The topic of the Testimonium’s authenticity has attracted much scholarly debate. The discussion generally falls into three camps:

  • Those who defend the authenticity of the entire passage;
  • Those who reject the entire passage;
  • Those who believe the passage has an authentic core but also includes later embellishments by Christian scribes.[23]

Recent scholarly discussion has favoured partial authenticity of the Testimonium Flavianum.[24] Louis Feldman counts 87 articles published during the period of 1937-1980, “the overwhelming majority of which question its authenticity in whole or in part”.[25] Géza Vermes offers a speculative reconstruction of the original text of the Testimonium Flavianum, removing later Christian additions, indicating deletions with ‘…’:[26] About this time there lived Jesus, a wise man…For he was one who performed paradoxical deeds and was the teacher of such people as accept the truth gladly. He won over many Jews [and many Greeks?]. He was [called] the Christ. When Pilate, upon hearing him accused by men of the highest standing among us, had condemned him to be crucified, those who had in the first place come to love him did not give up their affection for him…And the tribe of the Christians, so called after him, has still to this day not disappeared. [edit]Arguments in favor of authenticity or partial authenticity Until the 16th century, Christian writers took the position that Josephus wrote the Testimonium in its current form. Many modern scholars do claim that Josephus did write something about Jesus which has been corrupted, to an unspecified degree, in the surviving Greek text.[24] [edit]Arabic version In 1971, Shlomo Pines, a Jewish professor, published a translation of a different version of theTestimonium, quoted in an Arabic manuscript of the 10th century. The manuscript in question appears in the Book of the Title written by Agapius the historian, a 10th-century Arabic Christian and Melkitebishop of Hierapolis Bambyce (Manbij). Agapius’ version of the Testimonium reads: For he says in the treatises that he has written in the governance of the Jews: “At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus, and his conduct was good, and he was known to be virtuous. And many people from among the Jews and the other nations became his disciples. Pilate condemned him to be crucified and to die. And those who had become his disciples did not abandon their loyalty to him. They reported that he had appeared to them three days after his crucifixion, and that he was alive. Accordingly they believed that he was the Messiah, concerning whom the Prophets have recounted wonders” – Shlomo Pines’ translation, quoted by J. D. Crossan The text that Pines gives is mainly derived from the quotation of this portion of Agapius in the later Arabic Christian historian, Al-Makin, which contains extra material not found in the Florence manuscript that alone preserves the second half of Agapius. Pines suggests that Agapius’ Testimonium may be a more accurate record of what Josephus wrote, lacking as it does the parts which have often been considered to have been added by Christian copyists. He argued that this would add weight to the argument that Josephus did write something about Jesus. However, Pines’ theory, that Agapius’ text largely reflects what Josephus wrote, has not been widely accepted. The fact that even the title of Josephus’s work is inaccurate suggests that Agapius is paraphrasing his source, which may explain the discrepancies with the Greek version.[27] Agapius explicitly claims that he used a lost, older Syriac chronicle by Theophilus of Edessa (d. 785) to write his chronicle. This suggests that his Testimonium is also a paraphrase of a Syriac version of the Testimonium.[28] Moreover, because of some linguistic parallels between Agapius’ Testimonium, the Testimonium of Michael the Syrian (see above and below) and that of the Syriac translation of Eusebius’ Historia Ecclesiasica, Alice Whealey has argued that Agapius’ passage is a paraphrase of a Testimonium taken from the Syriac translation of Eusebius’ Historia Ecclesiastica that differed from the textus receptus in several ways, but most significantly in reading “he was thought to be the Christ.” [29] In addition, it has been suggested that Agapius’ statement that Pilate condemned Jesus to be crucified and to die was a response to the Muslim belief that Jesus did not really die on the cross. However, this aspect of Agapius’ Testimonium is not unique, since a similarly enhanced reference to Jesus’ death independently appears in Michael the Syrian’s Testimonium and in one other Syriac Testimonium deriving from the Syriac translation of Eusebius’ Historia Ecclesiastica.[30] This parallel is one more piece of evidence indicating that Agapius’ text is an Arabic paraphrase of a literal Syriac translation of the Testimonium. [edit]Syriac version Pines also refers to the Syriac translation of the Testimonium cited by Michael the Syrian in his World Chronicle. It was left to Alice Whealey to point out that Michael’s text in fact is identical with Jerome’s translation of the Testimonium at the most contentious point (“He was the Christ” becoming “He was believed to be the Christ”), establishing the existence of a variant that must go back to a Greek manuscript, since Latin and Syriac writers did not read each others’ works in late antiquity, but both commonly read and translated Greek Christian texts. [edit]Origen In his surviving works Origen does not mention the Testimonium Flavianum, even though he was familiar with the Antiquities of the Jews. Origen makes mention of the second passage about Jesus in Josephus in Antiquities of the Jews (xx.9) as well as Josephus’ reference to John the Baptist which occurs in the same chapter (xviii) as the Testimonium.[22] Origen states that Josephus “did not accept Jesus as Christ”,[31] but the Testimonium declares Jesus to be Christ. This suggests that the reference to Jesus as “the Christ” in Josephus is secondary. It is widely held that the originalTestimonium was worded “he was believed to be the Christ” rather than “he was the Christ.” According to Alice Whealey, this original version was also probably what Eusebius had at his disposal.[32] Whealey has argued that the wording of Michael the Syrian’s Testimonium in particular, which employs the word mistabra, meaning “was supposed,” has a skeptical connotation, as evidenced in the Syriac New Testament where it is used to translate Greek enomizeto of Luke 3:23. She has argued that Origen’s probable exposure to a reading like Greek enomizeto (corresponding to the Syriac mistabra) in the original version of the Testimonium would readily explain Origen’s statement that Josephus did not believe in Jesus as the Christ.[33][34] [edit]Literary connection with the Gospel of Luke In 1995, G. J. Goldberg, using a digital database of ancient literature, identified a possible literary connection between Josephus and the Gospel of Luke. He found a number of coincidences in word choice and word order, though not in exact wording, between the entire Josephus passage on Jesus and a summary of the life of Jesus in Luke 24:19-21, 26-27, called the “Emmaus narrative”: And he said to them, “What things?” And they said to him, “Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, a man who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people, and how our chief priests and rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. But we had hoped that he was the one to redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. … Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things and enter into his glory? And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he interpreted to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.[35] Goldberg points out explicit similarities in the Greek text, including a grammatical form of “the third day” which exists only in these two texts, and nowhere else in Christian literature; an unusual introduction of the first-person plural; as well as other consistent peculiarities of order and style that, he argues, have no parallel in other Jesus descriptions. From these, Goldberg writes that “The conclusion that can therefore be drawn is that Josephus and Luke derived their passages from a common Christian (or Jewish-Christian) source.” Goldberg points out that Josephus’ phrases “if it be lawful to call him a man,” “He was [the] Christ,” “he appeared to them,” and “And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day,” have no parallel in Luke’s passage, and takes this to support the position that the first two short phrases are Christian additions, while the latter two form the context of the Emmaus text and so were available to be transmitted by Josephus. Luke contains the phrases “but besides all this,” four sentences on the women who witnessed the tomb, and “the Christ should suffer,” for which there is no counterpart in Josephus’ text; unless referred to in the summary “these and countless other marvelous things about him”.[36] An alternate theory has been argued by Steve Mason who proposes that Luke-Acts may have used Josephus as a source.[37] [edit]Arguments against authenticity [edit]Early Christian writers other than Origen It has been suggested by older scholarship that since Justin Martyr makes no mention of theTestimonium in his efforts to persuade the rabbi Trypho in the Dialog With Trypho the Jew,[38] the text must not have existed, since it would have been an “extremely effective answer” [22] to Trypho. However, there is no evidence that Justin Martyr knew Josephus’ works: Josephus is never mentioned in his genuine works.[39] Also there is no evidence that any early Christian apologists used Josephus’ works in apologies directed at Jews.[40] Early writers such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Jerome do not draw on the Testimonium for anti-Jewish apologetic reasons; rather, they use the text for anti-pagan apologetics.[41] The earliest use of the Testimonium for anti-Jewish disputation appears in an anonymous late 4th century Latin text, known conventionally as Pseudo-Hegesippus‘s ‘De excidio Hierosolymitano.’.[42] Indeed, although some Christians before Origen had read parts of ‘Jewish War’ and ‘Against Apion,’ it is not clear that any Christian before Origen had read ‘Antiquities’ at all,[43] and none before Origen makes any clear reference to Book 18 of Antiquities, where the Testimonium appears.[44] Against this, Feldman had written that “no fewer than eleven church fathers prior to, or contemporary with, Eusebius cite various passages from Josephus (including the Antiquities) but not the Testimonium“.[22] However, both Michael Hardwick and Alice Whealey have conducted a closer reading of ante-Nicene Christian texts that cite or have been assumed to cite ‘Antiquities’ than Feldman and other earlier scholars, and both conclude that some prior assumptions that ‘Antiquities’ is cited are mistaken or debatable. For example, it has been shown by Michael Hardwick that Tertullian (ca. 193) had read Josephus’ ‘Against Apion’ rather than ‘Antiquities’, as is sometimes assumed. Tertullian’s reference to “antiqitatum Judaicarum” (Apol. 19) is not a reference to ‘Antiquities,’ but rather a reference to ‘Against Apion,’ which in ancient times was known as “The antiquity [i.e. ancient-ness] of the Jews.” [45] Hardwick argues that contrary to the assumption of some older scholars,[46] not only is it not clear that Tertullian had ever read ‘Antiquities’ but it is not clear that any other writer of the Western church other than Tertullian was directly acquainted with any of Josephus’ works at all.[47] Whealey expresses even more skepticism about Christians before Origen citing ‘Antiquities’ than Hardwick. For example, she argues that the authenticity of one catena fragment citing Book 2 of ‘Antiquities’ attributed to Irenaeus is debatable because catenae were often miscopied. In any case, as she has pointed out, even if the attribution to Irenaeus is accurate, it is clear that Irenaeus was unfamiliar with Book 18 of ‘Antiquities’ since he wrongly claims that Jesus was executed by Pilate in the reign of Claudius (Dem. ev. ap. 74), while Antiquities 18.89 indicates that Pilate was deposed during the reign of Tiberius, before Claudius.[48] As for writers of the Eastern church, Clement of Alexandria vaguely refers (Stromata 1.147) to Josephus’ historical writings in a way that indicates that he knew directly or indirectly the claim of Jewish War 6.440 that there were 1179 years between David and the second year of Vespasian. Direct familiarity with ‘Antiquities’ is, however, unclear in this passage. Clement’s claim that there were 585 years between Moses and David may be based on Antiquities 8.61, which says that there were 592 years between the Exodus and the Temple, if one assumes that he subtracted the four years of Solomon’s reign, and that a copying error was responsible for Clement’s text reading 585 instead of 588. But what this conjectural explanation for Clement’s claim about 585 years shows (a figure that does not explicitly appear in Antiquities) is that it is far from clear that Clement had direct acquaintance with Josephus’ Antiquities. [49][50] [edit]Vocabulary and style It has been claimed that some of the passage fails a standard test for authenticity, in that it contains vocabulary not otherwise used by Josephus;[51] for example, the Testimonium uses the Greek termpoietes with the meaning “doer” (as part of the phrase “doer of wonderful works”), but elsewhere Josephus only uses the term poietes to mean “poet,” while it is Eusebius who uses poietes to mean “doer of wonderful works” when referring to Jesus.[52][53][54] However, it has been argued that Eusebius’ use of the term “doer of wonderful works” for Jesus (and in later works for God) is evidence of the influence of the Testimonium’s vocabulary on his own vocabulary about Jesus (and by extension about God in later works), rather than evidence of his fabrication of the Testimonium.[55] On the other hand, it has been argued by many modern scholars that much of the vocabulary and grammar of the passage coheres well with Josephus’ style and language. John P. Meier, for example, states that “the vocabulary and grammar of the passage (after the clearly Christian material is removed) cohere well with Josephus’ style and language…almost every word in the core of the “Testimonium” is found elsewhere in Josephus—in fact, most of the vocabulary turns out to be characteristic of Josephus”.[56] C. Guignebert has claimed that Josephus’s style is not difficult to imitate, so that vocabulary proves little one way or the other.[57] The brief and compact character of the Testimonium stands in stark contrast to Josephus’ more voluminous detailing[58] of other individuals, even including those of minor importance;[59] for example, Josephus’ account of John the Baptist and his death, describes his virtues, the theology associated with his baptismal practices, his oratorial skills, that John’s influence was so great that Herod was afraid of John’s ability to incite the people to rebel against his regime, the circumstances of his death, and the belief that the destruction of Herod’s army was a divine punishment for Herod’s slaughter of John.[60] [edit]Interruption to the text The paragraph before the Testimonium flows naturally into the paragraph after it, which might indicate either that the entire paragraph is a later insertion, or that it was substantially rewritten. As Guiguebert put it, “the short digression, even with the proposed corrections, interrupts the thread of the discourse into which it is introduced”.[61] On the other hand, this argument has been rejected as inconclusive or unconvincing by some modern scholars, who have argued that Josephus was a “patchwork” writer, who often employed such digressive techniques, inserting passages, sometimes based on barely revised sources, that do not fit smoothly with, and sometimes even contradict, surrounding narratives.[62] [edit]Josephus’s faith It is often argued that “He was [the] Christ” can only be read as a profession of faith, and Josephus was almost certainly not a Christian, instead remaining a conventional Jew; Josephus’s lack of Christianity was even mentioned by early Christian writers before Eusebius, such as Origen[63] (asnoted above). For example, John Dominic Crossan has put it this way: The problem here is that Josephus’ account is too good to be true, too confessional to be impartial, too Christian to be Jewish.[64] Consequently, some scholars regard at least certain parts of the Testimonium as later additions. In particular three passages stood out[64]:

  • if it be lawful to call him a man …
  • He was [the] Christ …
  • for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him

The phrase “he was the Christ” has been viewed as particularly problematic because it seems to indicate that the author thought that Jesus was the Jewish Messiah. Some scholars have argued that Josephus thought that Jewish messianic promises were fulfilled in Vespasian,[65] and view it as unlikely that Josephus would explain too clearly or underline too sharply the existence of alternative messianic fulfilments before Vespasian.[66] In contrast, it has been argued by some[67] that the phrase “he was the Christ” was meant as an identification only, rather than an assertion of Jesus’ Messiahship, since the audience for the work were Romans of the late 1st century, and the earliest extant Roman writers, Tacitus and Pliny the Younger, writing shortly after Josephus in the early 2nd century, identify Jesus as Christus, rather than Jesus, without implying anything about Jesus’ Messianic status. In addition, although the standard text says “he was the Christ”, a recent study by Alice Whealey has argued that a variant Greek text of this sentence existed in the 4th century — He was believed to be the Christ;[68] following Whealey’s argument, the standard text would represent a corruption of the original, namely the loss of the main verb and a subsequent scribal “correction” of the prolative infinitive.[citation needed] [edit]Interpolations The entire passage is also found in one Greek manuscript of Josephus’ earlier work, The Jewish War. (This Greek manuscript of “Jewish War” with an interpolated Testimonium is known as the “Codex Vossianus.”) A passage about Jesus that appears to have been inspired by the Testimonium, but that differs widely from it in content also appears in an Old Russian adaptation of “Jewish War” written c.1250.[69] Interestingly, the passage dealing with Jesus is not the only significant difference between the Old Russian and Greek versions of “Jewish War.” Robert Eisler has suggested[70] that it was produced from one of Josephus’s drafts (noting that the “Slavonic Version” has Josephus escaping his fellow Jews at Jotapata when “he counted the numbers [of the lot cast in the suicide pact] cunningly and so managed to deceive all the others”, which is in striking contrast to the conventional version’s account: “Without hesitation each man in turn offered his throat for the next man to cut, in the belief that a moment later his commander would die too. Life was sweet, but not so sweet as death if Josephus died with them! But Josephus – shall we put it down to divine providence or just luck – was left with one other man….he used persuasion, they made a pact, and both remained alive.”[71] Other unique passages in the Old Russian version of “Jewish War” include accounts of John the Baptist, Jesus’s ministry (along with his death and resurrection), and the activities of the early church. [edit]Alleged fabrication by Eusebius Ken Olson has argued that the Testimonium was fabricated by Eusebius of Caesarea, who was the first author to quote it in his Demonstratio Evangelica.[72] Olson argues that the specific wording of theTestimonium is closely related to the argument Eusebius makes in his Demonstratio, in particular that Jesus is a “wise man” and not a “wizard”, as shown by the fact that his followers did not desert him even after he was crucified. Whealey rejects Olson’s thesis of Eusebian fabrication based on a comparison of the Testimonium’s style with that of Eusebius’ undisputed works, and the fact that there is no known case of complete fabrication ex nihilo by Eusebius of any other text that he quotes in his works.[73] Modern stylometric studies, which use a concordance of Josephus’ works that did not exist before the 20th century, has revealed some Josephan vocabulary and phrases (see above). As a consequence, it has more recently been argued that even “some proponents of the forgery thesis would agree that it is a good one” (i.e. good forgery).[74]

[edit]See also
Christianity portal
[edit]Notes
  1. ^ Plagnieux, P. ‘Les sculptures Romanes’ Dossiers d’Archéologie (January 2001) pg 15
  2. ^ Louis Feldman, Steve Mason (1999). Flavius Josephus. Brill Academic Publishers.
  3. ^ J.P. Meier, “Jesus in Josephus: A Modest Proposal,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 52 (1990): 76-103.
  4. a b Louis H. Feldman, “Josephus” Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol. 3, pp. 990-1.
  5. ^ William Whiston, The works of Flavius Josephus, the learned and authentic Jewish historian and celebrated warrior, Volume 4, T. & J. Allman Publisher, 1826. pp 380-385 Google Scholar Google BooksGoogle Web
  6. ^ Some scholars believe “brother” did not mean “brother” but rather cousin or relative.
  7. ^ Barrie Wilson, How Jesus Became Christian, Random House, 2009. pp 1 – 20
  8. ^ Online Reader – Project Gutenberg
  9. ^ Wise, Isaac Mayer (1868)The origin of ChristianityBloch and co; Page 137
  10. ^ “Testimonium Flavianum”. EarlyChristanWritings.com. Retrieved 2006-10-07.
  11. ^ “Hegesippus (Roberts-Donaldson translation). On Early Christian Writings.publisher= EarlyChristanWritings.com”. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  12. ^ Remsburg, John (1909)The Christ
  13. ^ “In spite of obvious knowledge of Josephus, from whom he may have derived the motif of the stoning of James, Hegesippus has produced his own account with irreconcilable conflicts with Josephus.” Chilton, Bruce; Jacob Neusner (2001) The brother of Jesus: James the Just and his missionWestminster John Knox Press, Page 53
  14. ^ George Albert Wells, Did Jesus Exist?, (1986) Pemberton Publishing Co., p. 11
  15. ^ Humphreys, Kenneth (2004) “The Real James?”
  16. ^ Whealey (2003), p. 170.
  17. ^ Josephus writing inJewish War says: I should not mistake if I said that the death of Ananus was the beginning of the destruction of the city (of Jerusalem), and that from this very day may be dated the overthrow of her wall, and the ruin of her affairs, whereon they saw their high priest, and the procurer of their preservation, slain in the midst of their city.Josephus, Jewish War 4.5.2
  18. ^ “Josephus, Flavius.” In: Cross, F. L. (ed.) (2005)The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press
  19. ^ Flavius JosephusJewish Antiqities 18. 5. 2.(Translation by William Whiston).
  20. ^ William Whiston, The new complete works of Josephus, Kregel Academic, 1999. p 662
  21. ^ McGiffert, Arthur Cushman. “Paragraph 7 of “Chapter XI.—Testimonies in Regard to John the Baptist and Christ” from Book I of Eusebius’ “The Church History.””. Retrieved 2007-08-12.(From the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series II, Vol. 1, edited by Philip Schaff.)
  22. a b c d Feldman (1989), p. 431
  23. ^ Edwin M. Yamauchi,Jesus Outside the New Testament: What is the Evidence? p. 212.
  24. a b See Louis H. Feldman,Josephus: A supplementary bibliography (New York, 1986) 618-619; 677.
  25. ^ Feldman (1989), p. 430
  26. ^ Geza Vermes, Jesus in the eyes of Josephus, Standpoint Jan/Feb 2010
  27. ^ Louis Feldman and Gohei Hata, Josephus, the Bible, and History (1989), p. 433.
  28. ^ Whealey (2008, pp.) 575-578.
  29. ^ Whealey (2008), pp. 580-587.
  30. ^ Whealey (2008) pp.582-585.
  31. ^ Origen, Commentary on Matthewx:17
  32. ^ Whealey (2003), pp. 41;190.
  33. ^ Whealey (2008) p. 581
  34. ^ Vermes, Geza (2003).Jesus in His Jewish Context. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. pp. 91–92.ISBN 0800636236.
  35. ^ English Standard Versiontranslation of Luke 24:16-28
  36. ^ Goldberg, G. J. The Coincidences of the Emmaus Narrative of Luke and the Testimonium of JosephusThe Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 13 (1995), pp. 59-77
  37. ^ Steve Mason, “Josephus and Luke-Acts,” Josephus and the New Testament (Hendrickson Publishers: Peabody, Massachusetts, 1992), pp. 185-229
  38. ^ http://mb-soft.com/believe/txv/martyr3.htmDialogue of Justin, Philosopher and Martyr, with Trypho, a Jew
  39. ^ Because a work called “Cohortatio ad Graecos” mentioning Josephus was wrongly ascribed to Justin, some older works erroneously claim that Justin Martyr knew Josephus, but in fact the “Cohortatio ad Graecos” of Pseudo-Justin was not written before the third century and therefore cannot be by him (Hardwick (1989), pp. 37-46
  40. ^ Whealey (2003), p. 11.
  41. ^ Whealey (2003), pp. 27-29.
  42. ^ Whealey (2003), pp. 11, 14-15, 28-29, 34
  43. ^ Whealey (2003), pp. 7-11.
  44. ^ Whealey (2003), pp. 7-8, 11.
  45. ^ Hardwick (1989), pp. 49-50.
  46. ^ Lost and Hostile Gospels,Rev. Sabine Baring-Gould
  47. ^ ‘Josephus as an historical source’ Hardwick p. 112
  48. ^ Whealey (2003), pp. 7-8
  49. ^ Whealey (2003) p. 8
  50. ^ Hardwick (1989), p. 31
  51. ^ Complete Concordance to Flavius Josephus, edited by K. H. Rengstorff, 2002.
  52. ^ Eusebius, Demonstration of the Gospels, 3:5
  53. ^ Eusebius, History of the Church, 1:2:23
  54. ^ Ken Olson, Eusebian Fabrication of the Testimonium (2001)
  55. ^ Alice Whealey notes in particular that Eusebius does not commonly use the word poietes to mean “doer” for anyone except Jesus or God; thus poietesmeaning “doer” in general was “not Eusebius’ typical mode of expression.” Alice Whealey (2007), p. 83; also pp. 80-83; 115.
  56. ^ John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the historical Jesus. Volume I. (New York, 1991) 62; 80-83.
  57. ^ “It may be admitted that the style of Josephus has been cleverly imitated, a not very difficult matter …”,Jesus by C. Guignebert, University Books, New York, 1956, p. 17.
  58. ^ Raphael Patai, The Jewish Mind (1996), page 84
  59. ^ Marshall Gauvin, Did Jesus Christ Really Live?(1922), preserved in theUniversity of ManitobaArchives (MSS 47, PC 36, box 15, folder 13), andavailable online
  60. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 18:5:2
  61. ^ Jesus by C. Guignebert, University Books, New York, 1956, p. 17
  62. ^ John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew (New York, 1991) p. 86, n. 54. Meier cites H. St. John Thackeray, Charles Martin and other scholars who reject the argument that the Testimonium must be an addition because it seems to break its surrounding narrative thread.
  63. ^ Origen, Contra Celsus, 1:47
  64. a b John Dominic Crossan, The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Peasant
  65. ^ John Dominic Crossan,The Historical Jesus, page 199
  66. ^ John Dominic Crossan,The Historical Jesus, page 199.
  67. ^ Meier, Marginal Jew, p. 73 n. 14; 76-77 n. 26.
  68. ^ “The Testimonium Flavium Controversy from Antiquity to the Present”Alice Wealey, 2000
  69. ^ pgs 470-471, appendix F of The Jewish War, Josephus. (trans. G. A. Williamson; introduction, notes and appendixes E. Mary Smallwood. Penguin Books, Penguin Classics imprint, 1981. ISBN 0-14-044420-3)
  70. ^ Iesous Basileus ou Basileusas (“Jesus the King Who Never Reigned”), byRobert Eisler. Published inHeidelberg in 1929.
  71. ^ pg 220 The Jewish War, Josephus. (trans. G. A. Williamson; introduction, notes and appendixes E. Mary Smallwood. Penguin Books, Penguin Classics imprint, 1981. ISBN 0-14-044420-3)
  72. ^ “Eusebius and the Testimonium Flavianum,”Catholic Biblical Quarterly61 (1999): 305-322
  73. ^ “Josephus, Eusebius and the Testimonium Flavianum” in Josephus und das Neue TestamentTuebingen, 2007
  74. ^ Josephus and ChristianityCarlton Paget p. 575-576
[edit]References
  • Bell, Albert A., Jr. “Josephus the Satirist? A Clue to the Original Form of the Testimonium Flavianum.” Jewish Quarterly Review 67(1976), 16-22.
  • Carleton Paget, James. “Some Observations on Josephus and Christianity”, Journal of Theological Studies 52.2 (2001) pp. 539–624. A survey of all the theories, all the scholars and all the evidence.
  • Eisenman, Robert. James the Brother of Jesus (Viking Penguin) 1997
  • Feldman, Louis H (1989). “A Selective Critical Bibliography of Josephus”. In Feldman, Louis H; Hata, Gohei. Josephus, the Bible, and History. Leiden: E.J. Brill. ISBN 9004089314
  • Goldberg, G J (1995). “The Coincidences of the Emmaus Narrative of Luke and the Testimonium of Josephus”The Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 13: pp. 59-77
  • Hardwick, Michael E. (1989). Josephus as an historical source in patristic literature through Eusebius. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press. ISBN 1555403115.
  • Pines, Shlomo. An Arabic Version of the Testimonium Flavianum and its Implications, (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1971) .
  • Whealey, Alice (2003). Josephus on Jesus: The Testimonium Flavianum Controversy from Late Antiquity to Modern Times. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 0820452416.
  • Whealey, Alice (2007). “Josephus, Eusebius of Caesarea, and the Testimonium Flavianum”. In Böttrich, Christfried; Herzer, Jens; Reiprich, Torsten. Josephus und das neue Testament. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 3161493680. Criticizes the thesis that Eusebius of Caesarea fabricated the Testimonium.
  • Whealey, Alice. “The Testimonium Flavianum in Syriac and Arabic,” New Testament Studies 54.4 (2008) pp. 571–590.
  • Zindler, Frank R. The Jesus The Jews Never Knew, Sepher Toldoth Yeshu and the Quest of the historical Jesus in Jewish Sources (AAP), 2003.
[edit]External links

CategoriesJudeo-Christian topics | Jesus and history | Perspectives on Jesus | Early Christianity and Judaism

James the Just

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Saint James the Just

Icon of James

Martyr, Adelphotheos

Born unknown
Died 62 Jerusalem
Venerated in All Christianity
Canonized pre-congregation
Feast May 3 (Roman Catholic), May 1 (Anglican), October 23 (Lutheran), (Episcopal Church (USA))
Attributes fuller’s club; man holding a book
Controversy James is sometimes identified with James, son of Alphaeusand James the Less. There is disagreement about the exact relationship to Jesus.

James the Just (Hebrew: יעקב) Yaakov (Greek Iάκωβος) Iakobos, (died 62), also known as James the Righteous,James of JerusalemJames Adelphotheos, or James, the Brother of the Lord, was an important figure in early Christianity. The Catholic Encyclopedia concludes that, based on Hegesippus‘s account, it is “probable” that James the Just is also James the Less, and in line with “most Catholic interpreters”, that he is therefore James, son of Alphaeus, as well as James, the son of Mary Cleophas.[1] He is not, however, identified with James the Great.[1] James the Just was the leader of the Christian movement in Jerusalem in the decades after Jesus’ death, but information about his life is scarce and ambiguous. Apart from a handful of references in the Gospels, the main sources for his life are the Acts of the Apostles, theepistles of Saint Paul, the historian Josephus, and St. Jerome, who also quotes the early Christian author Hegesippus. The Epistle of James in the New Testamentis signed by him, and he is the author of the Apostolic Decree of Acts 15. He is sometimes said to be the first of the Seventy Apostles. In the Epistle to the Galatians,Paul of Tarsus describes his first visit to Jerusalem where he met James and stayed with Cephas. Hegesippus describes him as a vegetarian.[2] In the Roman Catholic Church, the feast day of Philip the Apostle, along with that of James the Just, was traditionally observed on 1 May, the anniversary of the dedication of the church dedicated to them in Rome (now called the Church of the Twelve Apostles). The current ordinary calendar transfers this combined feast to May 3.

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[edit]Name

James was called “the Just” because of his righteousness and piety.[3][4] The name also helps distinguish him from other important figures in early Christianity of the same name, such as James, son of Zebedee. He is sometimes referred in Eastern Christianity as “James Adelphotheos”, i.e., “James the Brother of God” (Greek: Iάκωβος ο Αδελφόθεος), based on New Testament descriptions. The oldest surviving Christian liturgy, the Liturgy of St James, called him “the brother of God” (Adelphotheos).[5]

[edit]New Testament sources

The earliest New Testament sources on James are the surviving Pauline Epistles from about the sixth decade AD, describing events roughly during 35 – 55 AD. The Acts of the Apostles, written between 70 AD to 100 AD, describes the same period. The Gospels, with a disputed dating ranging from about 70 AD to as late as 110 AD, describe the period of Jesus‘ ministry, around 30 AD. In these sources, there is more than one person named James,[1] and different titles are used to distinguish between them: [edit]James the Brother of Jesus Paul’s Epistles Paul briefly mentions meeting “James, the Lord’s brother” in the Epistle to the Galatians:[6] Then after three years, I went up to Jerusalem to get acquainted with Cephas and stayed with him fifteen days. I saw none of the other apostles—only James, the Lord’s brother. I assure you before God that what I am writing you is no lie. The second time Paul writes meeting with James was again many years later, during a dispute over acceptance of Gentiles in the church, possibly the same incident as the Council of Jerusalemdescribed in the Acts of the Apostles. Notable is how Paul mentions James before Peter (Cephas):[7] James, Cephas and John, those esteemed as pillars, gave me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship when they recognized the grace given to me. They agreed that we should go to the Gentiles, and they to the Jews. All they asked was that we should continue to remember the poor, the very thing I had been eager to do all along. The third mention of James in Galatians is within the so-called “incident at Antioch“. According to Paul, Peter was not only afraid of James, but also bent to his will.[8] When Cephas came to Antioch, I opposed him to his face, because he stood condemned. For before certain people came from James, he used to eat with the Gentiles. But when they arrived, he began to draw back and separate himself from the Gentiles because he was afraid of those who belonged to the circumcision group. A “James” is mentioned in Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians, as one to whom Jesus appeared after his resurrection. Notable is how Paul names only Peter and James among the disciples and others who saw Jesus:[9] For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, and then to the Twelve. After that, he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers and sisters at the same time, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles — Based on this identification, Paul might also be referring to James earlier in the same letter:[10] Don’t we have the right to take a believing wife along with us, as do the other apostles and the Lord’s brothers and Cephas? This is generally taken as an indication that this James is the same as James the younger brother of Jesus.[1] Acts There is a James mentioned in Acts, which the Catholic Encyclopedia identifies with James the brother of Jesus:[1] Peter motioned with his hand for them to be quiet and described how the Lord had brought him out of prison. “Tell James and the other brothers and sisters about this,” he said, and then he left for another place.[11] James is also an authority in the early church at the Council of Jerusalem:[12] When they finished, James spoke up. “Brothers,” he said, “listen to me. Simon has described to us how God first intervened to choose a people for his name from the Gentiles. The words of the prophets are in agreement with this, as it is written: ‘After this I will return and rebuild David’s fallen tent. Its ruins I will rebuild, and I will restore it, that the rest of humanity may seek the Lord, even all the Gentiles who bear my name, says the Lord, who does these things’ —things known from long ago. It is my judgment, therefore, that we should not make it difficult for the Gentiles who are turning to God. Instead we should write to them, telling them to abstain from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from the meat of strangled animals and from blood. For the law of Moses has been preached in every city from the earliest times and is read in the synagogues on every Sabbath.” After this, there is only one more mention of James in Acts, meeting with Paul shortly before Paul’s arrest:[13] When we arrived at Jerusalem, the believers received us warmly. The next day Paul and the rest of us went to see James, and all the elders were present. Gospels The Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of Matthew also mention a James as Jesus’ brother:[1][14] “– Isn’t this the carpenter? Isn’t this Mary‘s son and the brother of James, JosephJudasand Simon? Aren’t his sisters here with us?” And they took offense at him. Unlike the synoptic Gospels, the Gospel of John never mentions anyone called James. However, it lists Jesus’ unnamed “brothers” as being a part of his entourage.[15] [edit]Peter, John, and James The synoptic Gospels, in a manner similar to Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians, recognize a core group of three disciples having the same names as those given by Paul. However, the James in this group in the Gospels is sometimes called the brother of John, which would be James the Great, who is definitely not James the Just. [edit]Two disciples named James In the list of the disciples found in the Gospels, two disciples named James are mentioned in the list of twelve disciples:[16] And he called to him his twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every affliction. The names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; Philip and BartholomewThomas, andMatthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus, and ThaddaeusSimon the Cananaean, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him. James, the son of Zebedee, is also known as James the Great, who is not the same James as James the Just.[1] James, son of Alphaeus, however, is usually identified with James the Less. When they arrived, they went upstairs to the room where they were staying. Those present were Peter, John, James and Andrew; Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew; James son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot, and Judas son of James.[17] [edit]James, son of Mary A Mary is also later mentioned as the mother of a James, both in the Gospel of Mark and in the Gospel of Matthew. Catholic interpretation generally holds that this James is to be identified with James the son of Alphaeus, and James, the brother of Jesus.[1] Some women were watching from a distance. Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joseph, and Salome.[18] When the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices so that they might go to anoint Jesus’ body.[19] Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of Zebedee’s sons.[20]

[edit]Life

The canonical writings of the New Testament, as well as other written sources from the Early Church, provide some insights into James’ life and his role in the Early Church. There is mention of him in theGospel of John and the early portions of the Acts of the Apostles. The Synoptics mention his name, but no further information. However, the later chapters of the Acts of the Apostles provide evidence that James was an important figure in the Christian community of Jerusalem. Jerome, in his De Viris Illustribus, argued that James was not Jesus’ brother but his cousin, son ofMary of Cleophas, “the sister of the mother of our Lord of whom John makes mention in his book.”[21]After the Passion, Jerome wrote, the Apostles selected James as Bishop of Jerusalem. In describing James’ ascetic lifestyle, De Viris Illustribus, quotes Hegesippus‘ account of James from the fifth book of Hegesippus’ lost Commentaries: After the apostles, James the brother of the Lord surnamed the Just was made head of the Church at Jerusalem. Many indeed are called James. This one was holy from his mother’s womb. He drank neither wine nor strong drink, ate no flesh, never shaved or anointed himself with ointment or bathed. He alone had the privilege of entering the Holy of Holies, since indeed he did not use woolen vestments but linen and went alone into the temple and prayed in behalf of the people, insomuch that his knees were reputed to have acquired the hardness of camels’ knees.[22] Since it was unlawful for any but the high priest of the temple to enter the Holy of Holies, and then only once a year on Yom Kippur, Jerome’s quotation from Hegesippus indicates that James was considered a high priest. The Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions suggest this.[23] Jerome quotes the non-canonical Gospel according to the Hebrews thus: “‘Now the Lord, after he had given his grave clothes to the servant of the priest, appeared to James, for James had sworn that he would not eat bread from that hour in which he had drunk the Lord’s cup until he should see him risen from the dead.’ And a little further on the Lord says, ‘bring a table and bread.’ And immediately it is added, ‘He took bread and blessed and broke and gave it to James the Just and said to him, “My brother, eat your bread, for the Son of Man is risen from the dead.”‘” And so he ruled the church of Jerusalem thirty years, that is until the seventh year of Nero.[24] (See Jerome and the Early Church Fathers) The non-canonical Gospel of Thomas confirms that James was an important leader stating “The disciples said to Jesus: We know that you will depart from us; who is it who will lead us?” Jesus said to them, “Wherever you have come from, go to James the Just, for whom heaven and earth came to be.”[25][26] Paul further describes James as being one of the persons to whom the risen Christ showed himself (1 Corinthians 15:3–8); later in 1 Corinthians, Paul mentions James in a way that suggests James had been married (9:5); and in Galatians, Paul lists James with Cephas (better known as Peter) and Johnas the three “pillars” of the Church (2:9), and who will minister to the “circumcised” (in general Jewsand Jewish Proselytes) in Jerusalem, while Paul and his fellows will minister to the “uncircumcised” (in general Gentiles) (2:12). These terms (circumcised/uncircumcised) are generally interpreted to mean Jews and Greeks, who were predominant; however, this is an oversimplification as 1st centuryJudaea Province also had some Jews who no longer circumcised, and some Greeks (called Proselytes or Judaizers) and others such as Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Arabs who did. When Peter, having miraculously escaped from prison, must flee Jerusalem due to Herod Agrippa‘s persecution, he asks that James be informed (Acts 12:17). When the Christians of Antioch were concerned over whether Gentile Christians need be circumcisedto be saved, they sent Paul and Barnabas to confer with the Jerusalem church. James played a prominent role in the formulation of the council’s decision (Acts 15:13ff). James was the last named figure to speak, after Peter, Paul and Barnabas; he delivered what he calls his “decision” (Acts 15:19 NRSV)— the original sense is closer to “opinion”.[27] He supported them all in being against the requirement (Peter had cited his earlier revelation from God regarding Gentiles), and suggested prohibitions about eating blood as well as meat sacrificed to idols and fornication. This became the ruling of the Council, agreed upon by all the apostles and elders, and sent to the other churches by letter. When Paul arrives in Jerusalem to deliver the money he raised for the faithful there, it is to James that he speaks, and it is James who insists that Paul ritually cleanse himself at Herod’s Temple to prove his faith and deny rumors of teaching rebellion against the Torah (Acts 21:18ff) (a charge ofantinomianism). Tradition, supported by inferences in Scripture, holds that James led the Jerusalem group as its first bishop or patriarch. This is not necessarily a point against the primacy of Peter in the early Church, and subsequently Roman Catholicism. Though James and not Peter was the first bishop of that group, Roman Catholics believe the bishop of Jerusalem was not by that fact the head of the Christian church, since the leadership rested in Peter as the “Rock” and “Chief Shepherd”.[28] John Chrysostomopined: “If anyone should say, ‘Why then was it James who received the See of Jerusalem?’ I should reply that He [Christ] made Peter the teacher not of that See, but of the world.”[29] It has been suggested that Peter entrusted the Jerusalem community to James when he was forced to leave Jerusalem.[30] According to the Church historian Eusebius, Clement of Alexandria in the late 2nd century stated the following concerning the appointment of James to the Jerusalem episcopacy, “For they say that Peter and James and John after the ascension of our Saviour, as if also preferred by our Lord, strove not after honor, but chose James the Just bishop of Jerusalem”.[24][31] (See the Early Church Fathers and Jerome)

[edit]Death

According to a passage in Josephus’s Antiquities of the Jews, (xx.9) “the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James” met his death after the death of the procurator Porcius Festus, yet before Lucceius Albinus took office (Antiquities 20,9) — which has thus been dated to 62. TheHigh Priest Ananus ben Ananus took advantage of this lack of imperial oversight to assemble aSanhedrin (although the correct translation of the Greek ‘synhedion kriton’ is ‘a council of judges’) who condemned James “on the charge of breaking the law,” then had him executed by stoning. Josephus reports that Ananus’ act was widely viewed as little more than judicial murder, and offended a number of “those who were considered the most fair-minded people in the City, and strict in their observance of the Law,” who went as far as meeting Albinus as he entered the province to petition him about the matter. In response, King Agrippa replaced Ananus with Jesus, the son of Damneus. George Albert Wells challenges the identification of the James whom Ananus ben Ananus had executed with James the Just, considering the words, “who was called Christ,” to be a later interpolation. (See Josephus on Jesus) Eusebius, while quoting Josephus’ account, also records otherwise lost passages from Hegesippus(see links below), and Clement of Alexandria (Historia Ecclesiae, 2.23). Hegesippus’ account varies somewhat from what Josephus reports, and may have been an attempt to reconcile the various accounts by combining them. According to Hegesippus, the scribes and Pharisees came to James for help in putting down Christian beliefs. The record says: They came, therefore, in a body to James, and said: “We entreat thee, restrain the people: for they are gone astray in their opinions about Jesus, as if he were the Christ. We entreat thee to persuade all who have come hither for the day of the passover, concerning Jesus. For we all listen to thy persuasion; since we, as well as all the people, bear thee testimony that thou art just, and showest partiality to none. Do thou, therefore, persuade the people not to entertain erroneous opinions concerning Jesus: for all the people, and we also, listen to thy persuasion. Take thy stand, then, upon the summit of the temple, that from that elevated spot thou mayest be clearly seen, and thy words may be plainly audible to all the people. For, in order to attend the passover, all the tribes have congregated hither, and some of the Gentiles also.”[32] To the scribes’ and Pharisees’ dismay, James boldly testified that Christ “Himself sitteth in heaven, at the right hand of the Great Power, and shall come on the clouds of heaven.” The scribes and pharisees then said to themselves, “We have not done well in procuring this testimony to Jesus. But let us go up and throw him down, that they may be afraid, and not believe him.” Accordingly, the scribes and Pharisees …threw down the just man… [and] began to stone him: for he was not killed by the fall; but he turned, and kneeled down, and said: “I beseech Thee, Lord God our Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.” And, while they were thus stoning him to death, one of the priests, the sons of Rechab, the son of Rechabim, to whom testimony is borne by Jeremiah the prophet, began to cry aloud, saying: “Cease, what do ye? The just man is praying for us.” But one among them, one of the fullers, took the staff with which he was accustomed to wring out the garments he dyed, and hurled it at the head of the just man. And so he suffered martyrdom; and they buried him on the spot, and the pillar erected to his memory still remains, close by the temple. This man was a true witness to both Jews and Greeks that Jesus is the Christ. —Fragments from the Acts of the Church; Concerning the Martyrdom of James, the Brother of the Lord, from Book 5.[32] Vespasian’s siege and capture of Jerusalem delayed the selection of Simeon of Jerusalem to succeed James. According to Schaff in 1904 this account by “Hegesippus has been cited over and over again by historians as assigning the date of the martyrdom to 69 AD” though he challenged the assumption that Hegesippus gives anything to denote such a date.[33]Josephus does not mention in his writings how James was buried, which makes it hard for scholars to determine what happened to James after his death.

[edit]Influence

The Epistle of James has been traditionally attributed to James the Just. Modern historians of the early Christian churches tend to place James in the tradition of Jewish Christianity; where Paul emphasized faith over observance of Mosaic Law, which he considered a burden, an antinomian disposition, James is thought to have espoused the opposite position which is derogatively called Judaizing. One corpus commonly cited as proof of this are the Recognitions andHomilies of Clement (also known as the Clementine literature), versions of a novel that has been dated to as early as the 2nd century, where James appears as a saintly figure who is assaulted by an unnamed enemy some modern critics think may be Paul. Scholar James D. G. Dunn has proposed that Peter was the bridge-man (i.e. the pontifex maximus) between the two other “prominent leading figures”: Paul and James the Just.[34] Traditional Christian theologians have maintained likewise that the two held the same beliefs; evangelicals claim that James’ talk of works referred to works which God produced in Christians, while Orthodox and Catholic theologians claim that Paul did not discount the importance of works (citing passages such as Romans 6 and 8) and that James was not referring to ceremonial works of the Torah (citing the fact that at the First Council of Jerusalem, James declared that only a small portion of the Torah should be applied to gentile converts). Some apocryphal gospels testify to the reverence Jewish followers of Jesus (like the Ebionites) had for James. The Gospel of the Hebrews fragment 21 relates the risen Jesus’ appearance to James. TheGospel of Thomas (one of the works included in the Nag Hammadi library), saying 12, relates that the disciples asked Jesus, “We are aware that you will depart from us. Who will be our leader?” Jesus said to him, “No matter where you come [from] it is to James the Just that you shall go, for whose sake heaven and earth have come to exist.” Fragment X of Papias refers to “James the bishop and apostle”. Epiphanius’ Panarion 29.4 describes James as a Nazirite. The pseudepigraphical First Apocalypse of James associated with James’s name mentions many details, some of which may reflect early traditions: he is said to have authority over the twelve Apostles and the early church; this work also adds, somewhat puzzlingly, that James left Jerusalem and fled to Pella before the Roman siege of that city in 70 CE. (Ben Witherington suggests what is meant by this was that James’ bones were taken by the early Christians who had fled Jerusalem). The Apocryphon of James, the sole copy of which was found in the Nag Hammadi library, and which may have been written in Egypt in the 3rd century,[35] recounts a post-resurrection appearance of the risen Christ to James and Peter which James is said to have recorded in Hebrew. In the dialogue, Peter speaks twice (3:12; 9:1) but misunderstands Jesus. Only James is addressed by name (6:20) and James is the more dominant of the two. The Protevangelion of James (or “Infancy Gospel of James”), a work of the 2nd century, also presents itself as written by James — a sign that his authorship would lend authority — and so do several tractates in the codices found at Nag Hammadi.

[edit]Relationship to Jesus

Jesus’ “brothers” — James as well as JudeSimon and Joses — are named in Matthew 13:55 andMark 6:3 and mentioned elsewhere. James’ name always appears first in lists, which suggests he was the eldest among them.[36] In the passage in Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities (20.9.1) the Jewish historian describes James as “the brother of Jesus who is called Christ”, although it is not known whether this is original or added by later Christian editors/copyists. Paul, recounting his conversion, recalls “Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to visit Cephas and remained with him fifteen days. But I saw none of the other apostles except James the Lord’s brother.”[37] Interpretation of the phrase, “brother of the Lord”, and similar phrases, is divided between those who interpret the phrase literally and those (Catholics and Eastern Orthodox and some Protestants) who presuppose the perpetual virginity of Mary and therefore cannot also accept an absolutely literal interpretation. There are various ways of understanding the phrase which would not contradict Mary’s perpetual virginity. [edit]Literal Brother It is widely held that the Jews living in Jerusalem in Christ’s time still adhered to the Mosaic Law, which advised married couples to be fruitful and have many children. If Mary and Joseph were average Jews, they would have had more children after Mary gave birth to Jesus, thus making James a brother of Jesus. Christianity teaches that Jesus was born of a virgin, and Jesus is referred to as the “first-born son” of Mary, so James and the other brethren of Jesus would have been younger co-uterine half-brothers. A variant on this is presented by James Tabor,[36] who argues that after the early and childless death of Joseph, Mary married Clopas, whom he accepts as a younger brother of Joseph, according to theLevirate law. According to this view Clopas fathered James and the later siblings but not Jesus, who whilst legally adopted by Joseph, is presumed to be the product of an earlier pre-marital coupling, possibly with Panthera. Crossan suggested that he was probably Jesus’ older brother.[38] [edit]Stepbrother Jerome asserts in his tract The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary that the term “first-born” was used to refer to any offspring which opened the womb, rather than definitely implying other children.[39] The Protevangelium of James assumes the Greek nature of Jewish practices during this period in history and says that Mary was betrothed to an older relative in order to preserve her virginity and that Joseph already had children. In this case, James was one of Joseph’s children from his previous marriage and, therefore, Jesus’ stepbrother. One argument supporting this view is that it would have been against Jewish custom for Jesus to give his mother to the care of John (who is not at all suspected to be a blood relative of Jesus) if Mary had other living sons. This is because the eldest son would take responsibility for his mother after the death of her husband.[40] So any other sons of Mary should have taken on this responsibility if they existed, therefore arguing against a direct biological brother relationship. Also, Aramaic and Hebrew tended to use circumlocutions to point out blood relationships; it is asserted that just calling some people “brothers of Jesus” would not have necessarily implied the same mother.[41][42] Rather, something like “sons of the mother of Jesus” would have been used to indicate a common mother. Scholars and theologians who assert this point out that Jesus was called “the son of Mary” rather than “a son of Mary” in his hometown (Mark 6:3).[41] [edit]Cousin James, along with the others named “brethren” of Jesus, could also have been Jesus’ cousins. This claim is justified by the fact that cousins were also called “brothers” and “sisters” in Jesus’ postulated native language, Aramaic; it and Hebrew do not contain a word for “cousin”. Furthermore, the Greek words adelphos and adelphe were not restricted to their literal meaning of a full brother or sister in the Bible; nor were their plurals.[41][42] This use is still common in Greece and other Balkan cultures. This assumes, naturally that the Middle Eastern authors’ usage of Greek reflects their way of speaking. The tradition of considering cousins as brothers or sisters is still evident in most Eastern cultures; in some languages the term “cousin” does not even exist. Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275 – 339) reports the tradition that James the Just was the son of Joseph’sbrother Clopas, and therefore was of the “brethren” (which he interprets as “cousin”) of Jesus described in the New Testament. This is echoed by Jerome (c. 342 – 419) in De Viris Illustribus (“On Illustrious Men”) – James is said to be the son of another Mary, wife of Clopas and the “sister” of Mary, the mother of Jesus – in the following manner: James, who is called the brother of the Lord, surnamed the Just, the son of Joseph by another wife, as some think, but, as appears to me, the son of Mary, sister of the mother of our Lord of whom John makes mention in his book… Jerome refers to the scene of the Crucifixion in John 19:25, where three Marys – the mother of Jesus, Mary of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene – are said to be witnesses. John also mentions the “sister” of the mother of Jesus, often identified with Mary of Clopas due to grammar. Mary “of Clopas” is often interpreted as Mary “wife of Clopas”. Mary of Nazareth and Mary of Clopas also need not be literally sisters, in light of the usage of the said words in Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic.[41] Mary of Clopas is suggested to be the same as “Mary, the mother of James the younger and Joses”, “Mary the mother of James and Joseph” and the “other Mary” in Jesus’ crucifixion and post-resurrection accounts in the Synoptic Gospels. Proponents of this identification argue that the writers of the Synoptics would have called this Mary, simply, “the mother of Jesus” if she was indeed meant to be the mother of Jesus, given the importance of her son’s crucifixion and resurrection: they also note that the mother of James and Joses is called “Maria” whereas the mother of Jesus is “Mariam” or “Marias” in Greek. These proponents find it unlikely that Mary would be referred to by her biological children other than Jesus at such a significant time (James happens to be the brother of one Joses, as spelled in Mark, or Joseph, as in Matthew).[41][42][43] Jerome’s opinion suggests an identification of James the Just with the Apostle James, son of AlphaeusClopas and Alphaeus are thought to be different Greek renderings of the Aramaic nameHalpai.[42] Despite this, some biblical scholars tend to distinguish them; this is also not Roman Catholic dogma, though a traditional teaching. Since this Clopas is, according to Eusebius, Joseph of Nazareth’s brother (see above) and this Mary is said to be Mary of Nazareth’s sister, James could be related to Jesus by blood and law.[41] [edit]Other Relationships Also, Jesus and James could be related in some other way, not strictly “cousins”, following the non-literal application of the term adelphos and the Aramaic term for “brother”.[41][42] According to the apocryphal First Apocalypse of James, James is not the earthly brother of Jesus, but a spiritual brother.

[edit]The ossuary

Main article: James Ossuary In the November 2002 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, André Lemaire of the Sorbonne University in Paris published the report that an ossuary bearing the inscription Ya’aqov bar Yosef akhui Yeshua’(“James son of Joseph brother of Jesus”) had been identified belonging to a collector, who quickly turned out to be Oded Golan. If authentic, the inscription (while not mentioning Jesus’ and James’ mother) would have been the first archaeological evidence that Jesus existed aside from themanuscript tradition. The ossuary was exhibited at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Canada, late that year. But on June 18, 2003, the Israeli Antiquities Authority published a report concluding, based on an analysis of the patina, that the inscription is a modern forgery. Specifically, it appeared that the inscription had been added recently and made to look old by addition of a chalk solution. On December 29, 2004, Golan was indicted in an Israeli court along with three other men — Robert Deutsch, an inscriptions expert who teaches at Haifa University; collector Shlomo Cohen; and antiquities dealer Faiz al-Amaleh. They were accused of being part of a forgery ring that had been operating for more than 20 years. Golan denied the charges against him. According to the BBC, “when the police took Oded Golan into custody and searched his apartment they discovered a workshop with a range of tools, materials, and half finished ‘antiquities’. This was evidence for an fraud of a scale far greater than they had suspected.”[44]

[edit]Bibliography
  • Richard BauckhamJames: Wisdom of James, disciple of Jesus the sage. London: Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0-415-10369-X– (-3); Jude and the Relatives of Jesus in the Early Church. London: T & T Clark, 1990, 2004. ISBN 0-567-08297-0 (paperback).
  • Raymond E. BrownAn Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Doubleday, 1997. ISBN 0-385-24767-2
  • John Painter. Just James. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1997 ISBN 1-57003-174-6,review
  • Hershel Shanks and Ben Witherington, The Brother of Jesus. New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 2003. ISBN 0-06-055660-9
  • Francis Watson. Paul, Judaism and the Gentiles. Cultural background.
  • Biblical Archaeology Review Articles in various issues in 2004 and 2005 concerning the ossuary.
[edit]Notes
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  1. a b c d e f g h Catholic Encyclopedia: Saint James the Less
  2. ^ ABC National Radio:James, the Brother of Jesus, part one: The Missing Storygarments.”
  3. ^ Eisenman,R. (1996)James the Brother of Jesus Viking. ISBN 0-670-86932-5
  4. ^ In the Gospel of Thomas, 12,

The disciples said to Jesus, “We know that you are going to leave us. Who will be our leader?” Jesus said to them, “No matter where you are, you are to go to James the Just, for whose sake heaven and earth came into being.” Miller, Robert J., ed. (1994) The Complete Gospels Polebridge Press. ISBN 0-06-065587-9

  1. ^ Philip SchaffHistory of the Christian Church, chapter 4, § 27. James the Brother of the Lord: “And in the Liturgy of St. James, the brother of Jesus is raised to the dignity of “the brother of the very God”.
  2. ^ Galatians 1:18-20
  3. ^ Galatians 2:9-10
  4. ^ Galatians 2:11-12
  5. ^ 1Corinthians 15:3-7
  6. ^ 1Corinthians 9:5
  7. ^ Acts 12:17
  8. ^ Acts 15:13-21. James is quoting Amos 9:11-12.
  9. ^ Acts 21:17-18.
  10. ^ Mark 6:3, see alsoMatthew 13:55-56.
  11. ^ See John 2:12 andJohn 7:3-10.
  12. ^ Matthew 10:1-4
  13. ^ Acts 1:13.
  14. ^ Mark 15:40
  15. ^ Mark 16:1
  16. ^ Matthew 27:56.
  17. ^ Church Fathers – De Viris Illustribus (Jerome) – Source. Translated by Ernest Cushing Richardson. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 3. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight.
  18. ^ Jerome, letters.
  19. ^ James Priest, Wheaton.
  20. a b Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 2
  21. ^ The Gospel of Thomas, login 12
  22. ^ New Testament Apocrypha: Gospels and related writings, by Wilhelm Schneemelcher, Robert McLachlan, p. 119
  23. ^ Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Vol. 3 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993); See also Strong’s G2919
  24. ^ Mckenzie, John L.The Dictionary of the Bible. “Peter”. (Roman Catholic)
  25. ^ Ryland,Ray. “Peter and the Orthodox: A Reprise.” Originally published in This Rock, Vol. 7, No. 10, October 1996. Retrieved September 10, 2007 (Roman Catholic)
  26. ^ The Navarre Bible, footnotes (Roman Catholic)
  27. ^ Eusebius Church History Book 2:1 quoting Clement of Alexandria’s Sixth Hypotyposes
  28. a b Fragments from the Acts of the Church; Concerning the Martyrdom of James, the Brother of the Lord, from Book 5.
  29. ^ Schaff, Philip (1904) Henry Wace “A Select library of Nicene and post-Nicene fathers of the Christian church” BiblioBazaar ISBN 1-110-37346-5
  30. ^ The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, chapter 32, page 577, by James D. G. Dunn: “ForPeter was probably in fact and effect the bridge-man (pontifex maximus!) who did more than any other to hold together the diversity of first-century Christianity. James the brother of Jesus and Paul, the two other most prominent leading figures in first-century Christianity, were too much identified with their respective “brands” of Christianity, at least in the eyes of Christians at the opposite ends of this particular spectrum. But Peter, as shown particularly by the Antioch episode in Gal 2, had both a care to hold firm to his Jewish heritage, which Paul lacked, and an openness to the demands of developing Christianity, which James lacked. John might have served as such a figure of the center holding together the extremes, but if the writings linked with his name are at all indicative of his own stance he was too much of an individualist to provide such a rallying point. Others could link the developing new religion more firmly to its founding events and to Jesus himself. But none of them, including the rest of the twelve, seem to have played any role of continuing significance for the whole sweep of Christianity—though James the brother of John might have proved an exception had he been spared.” [Italics original]
  31. ^ Robinson, James M., ed. (1978) The Nag Hammadi LibraryHarper & Row. ISBN 0-06-066933-0
  32. a b Tabor, James D.(2006). The Jesus Dynasty: A New Historical Investigation of Jesus, His Royal Family, and the Birth of Christianity. Simon & Schuster.ISBN 0743287231.
  33. ^ Galations 1.18-19 (ESV)
  34. ^ John Dominic CrossanJesus: A Revolutionary Biography, 1994, ISBN 0-06-061662-8
  35. ^ The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary (Jerome)
  36. ^ Constantine Zalalas: Holy Theotokos: Apologetic Study
  37. a b c d e f g Brethren of the Lord, Roman Catholic.
  38. a b c d e – Catholic Encyclopedia, “The Brethren of the Lord”
  39. ^ This position is articulated in footnotes of the Christian Community Bible, published by Claretian Communications(Roman Catholic)Amazon.com link
  40. ^ BBC on Oded Golan[1] Matti Myllykoski concluded: “The authenticity and significance of the ossuary has been defended by Shanks (2003), while many scholars — relying on convincing evidence, to say the least — strongly suspect that it is a modern forgery.” Myllykoski, Matti (2007),James the Just in History and Tradition: Perspectives of Past and Present Scholarship (Part II), Currents in Biblical Research; 6; 11,p.84, DOI: 10.1177/1476993X07080242.
[edit]External links

CategoriesSeventy Disciples | 62 deaths | Christian martyrs of the Roman era | Anglican saints |People celebrated in the Lutheran liturgical calendar | Patriarchs of Jerusalem | Saints from the Holy Land | Palestinian Roman Catholic saints | Letter writers | Followers of Jesus | 1st-century bishops |Judeo-Christian topics | Burials at the Cathedral of St. James, Jerusalem | 1st-century Christian martyr saints | People executed by stoning | Early Christianity and Judaism | Book of Acts

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John the Baptist

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Saint John the Baptist

John the Baptist baptizing Christ by Francesco Trevisani

Forerunner, Precursor, Baptist, Martyr.

Born c. 5 BCE
Died c. 36 CE (aged 38-42)
Venerated in Baha’i FaithIslamAssyrian Church of the EastRoman Catholic ChurchEastern Orthodox ChurchEastern Catholic ChurchesOriental Orthodox ChurchesAnglicanism,LutheranismMandeanism
Majorshrine Church of St. John the Baptist,Jerusalem
Feast June 24 (Nativity), August 29 (Beheading), January 7 (Synaxis, Eastern Orthodox), Thout 2 (Coptic Orthodox Church)
Attributes Cross, sheep, camel-skin robe
Patronage patron saint of French Canada,NewfoundlandPuerto Rico,Knights Hospitaller of Jerusalem,FlorenceTurinPortoGenoa,CesenaJordanXewkija and many other places

John the Baptist (Hebrew: יוחנן המטביל, Yoanan ha-mmatbilArabic: يحيى‎ Yahyá or يوحنا المعمدان Yūhannā al-maʿmadānAramaic: ܝܘܚܢܢ Yoanan)[1] (c. 6 BCE – c. 36 CE) was an itinerant preacher[2] and a major religious figure[3] who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River.[4] Some scholars maintain that he was influenced by the Essenes, who were semi-ascetic, expected anapocalypse, and practiced rituals conferring strongly with baptism,[5] although there is no direct evidence to substantiate this.[6] John is regarded as a prophet inChristianityIslam,[7] the Bahá’í Faith,[8] and Mandaeism.

John the baptist in church of st baptist in Bohinj (slovenija) Most biblical historians agree that John baptized Jesus at “Bethany beyond the Jordan,” by wading into the water with Jesus from the eastern bank.[9][10] In addition to theCanonical gospels, John the Baptist is also mentioned by Jewish historian Josephus, in Aramaic Matthew, inPseudo-Clementine, and in the Qur’an.[11] Accounts of John in the New Testament appear compatible with the account in Josephus.[12] John anticipated a messianic figure who would be greater than himself,[13] and, in the New Testament, Jesus is the one whose coming John foretold. Christians commonly refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus,[14]since John announces Jesus’ coming. John is also identified with the prophet Elijah,[15] and is described by the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus.[16] Some of Jesus’ early followers had previously been followers of John.[15] The beheading of St. John the Baptist is a standard theme in Christian art,[1] in which John’s head is often depicted on a platter, which represents the request of Herod’s stepdaughter, Salome.[17] He is also depicted as an ascetic wearing camel hair, with a staff and scroll inscribed Ecce Agnus Dei, or bearing a book or dish with a lamb on it.[2] In Orthodox icons, he often has angel’s wings, since Mark 1:2 describes him as a messenger.[18]

Contents

 [hide]

[edit]Gospel narrative

John the Baptist (right) with child Jesus, painting by Bartolomé Esteban Perez Murillo All four canonical Gospels record John the Baptist’s ministry, as does the non-canonical Gospel of the Hebrews. They depict him as proclaiming Christ’s arrival.[citation needed] In the Synoptic Gospels (Mark,Matthew, and Luke), Jesus is baptized by John. [edit]Birth and infancy Main article: Nativity of St. John the Baptist The Gospel of Luke includes an account of John’s infancy, introducing him as the son of Zachariah, an old man, and his wife Elizabeth, who was barren.[19] According to this account, the birth of John was foretold by the angel Gabrielto Zachariah, while Zachariah was performing his functions as a priest in the temple of Jerusalem. Since Zachariah is described as a priest of the course of Abijahand his wife, Elizabeth, as one of the daughters of Aaron,[20] this would make John a descendant ofAaron on both his father’s and mother’s side.[21] The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was conceived when Elizabeth was about six months pregnant, and when her cousin Mary came to tell her about her news, Elizabeth’s unborn child “jumped for joy” in her womb.[22] There is no mention of a family relationship between John and Jesus in the other Gospels, and the scholar Raymond E. Brown has described it as “of dubious historicity”.[23] Géza Vermes has called it “artificial and undoubtedly Luke’s creation”.[24] On the basis of the account in Luke, the Catholic calendar placed the feast of John the Baptist on June 24, six months before Christmas.[25] Zachariah had lost his speech at the behest and prophecy of the angel Gabriel,[26] and it was restored on the occasion of Zachariah naming John.[27] The many similarities between the accounts of the birth of John and that of Samuel in the Old Testament have led scholars to suggest that the Gospel of Luke story of the birth of John and of the annunciation and birth of Jesus are modeled on that of Samuel.[28] [edit]Ministry

Jan Brueghel the Elder, John the Baptist preaching All four canonical gospels relate John’s preaching and baptism in the River Jordan. Most notably he is the one who recognizes Jesus as the Messiah and baptizes him. The baptism marks the beginning of Jesus’ ministry. The Gospels of MarkMatthew and (most clearly) Luke relate that Jesus came from Galilee to John and was baptized by him, whereupon the Spirit descended upon Jesus and a voice from Heaven told him he was God’s Son. The Gospel of John does not record John’s baptizing Jesus, but John introduces Jesus to his disciples as the “Lamb of God” (John 1:29-36[29]). Considered by Christians to be without sin, Jesus nevertheless received John’s baptism, which was for the repentance of sins (Mark 1:4[30]). This is addressed in the Gospel of Matthew‘s account, which portrays John’s refusal to baptize Jesus, saying, “I need to be baptized by you.” Jesus persuades John to baptize him nonetheless (Matthew 3:1315[31]).

John baptizing Christ, by Guido Reni The Gospel of John reports that Jesus’ disciples were baptizing and that a debate broke out between some of the disciples of John and another Jew about purification. In this debate John argued that Jesus “must become greater,” while he (John) “must become less” (John 3:22-36[32]). The Gospel of John then points out that Jesus’ disciples were baptizing more people than John (John 4:2[33]). Later, the Gospel relates that Jesus regarded John as “a burning and shining lamp, and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light”. (John 5:35[34]). The book of Acts portrays the disciples of John as eventually merging into the followers of Jesus (Acts 18:24-19:6[35]), a development not reported by the Gospels except for the early case of Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother (John 1:35-42[36]). Scholars such as Harold W. Attridge contend that John’s status as a “self-conscious and deliberate forerunner of Jesus” is likely to be an invention by early Christians, arguing that “for the early church it would have been something of an embarrassment to say that Jesus, who was in their minds superior to John the Baptist, had been baptized by him.”[37] [edit]Death

This section requires expansion.

In the Gospel accounts of John’s death, Herod has John imprisoned for denouncing his marriage, and John is later executed by beheading. John condemned Herod for marrying Herodias the former wife of his brother Philip, in violation of Old Testament Law. Later her daughter dances before Herod, who offers her a favour in return. Herodias tells her to ask for the head of John the Baptist, which is delivered to her on a plate (Mark 6:14-29). The first century Jewish historian Josephus gives a slightly different account in his Antiquities of the Jews. Josephus writes that Herod had John arrested because John had so many followers that Herod feared they might begin a rebellion. Herod later had him executed (Ant. 18.116-118). It is possible that both accounts are true. Josephus writes about John’s death in a section detailing some of Herod’s political dealings. Herod regarded John as a threat, he spoke against Herod and had many followers, so Herod wanted to get rid of him. The Gospels recall the teaching of John, that he called for Israel to purify herself through baptism (Matthew 3:1-12). So the Gospels’ description of John’s death focuses on the final reason Herod had for arresting John, which was religious. So it may have been that Herod wanted John arrested because he was a political threat, and John’s condemnations of Herod’s marriage was “the final straw”. See James D.G. Dunn, Jesus Remembered pp377–379.[2]

[edit]John the Baptist and Old Testament prophecy
This section uses one or more religious texts as primary sources without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources.

John the Baptist, by Andrea del Sarto, 1528

John the Baptist, by Joan de Joanes, c.1560 Christians believe that John the Baptist had a specific role ordained by God as forerunner or precursor of Jesus, who was the foretold Messiah. The New Testament Gospels speak of this role. In Luke 1:17 the role of John is referred to as being “to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.” In Luke 1:76 as “…thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways” and in Luke 1:77 as being “To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins.” There are several passages within the Old Testament which are interpreted by Christians as being prophetic of John the Baptist in this role. These include a passage in the Book of Malachi 3:1 that refers to a prophet who would prepare the way of the Lord: “Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts. — Malachi 3:1[38] and also at the end of the next chapter in Malachi 4:5-6 where it says, “Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD: And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse.” The Jews of Jesus’ day expected Elijah to come before the Messiah; indeed, some modern Jews continue to await Elijah’s coming as well, as in the Cup of Elijah the Prophet in the Passover Seder. This is why the disciples ask Jesus in Matthew 17:10, ‘Why then say the scribes that Elias must first come?.’ The disciples are then told by Jesus that Elijah came in the person of John the Baptist, “Jesus replied, “To be sure, Elijah comes and will restore all things. But I tell you, Elijah has already come, and they did not recognize him, but have done to him everything they wished. In the same way the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands.” Then the disciples understood that he was talking to them about John the Baptist”. — Matthew 17:11-13 These passages are applied to John in the Synoptic Gospels.[39][40][41] The Gospel of John indicates that John the Baptist did not fully appreciate his status, “Now this was John’s testimony when the Jews of Jerusalem sent priests and Levites to ask him who he was. He did not fail to confess, but confessed freely, “I am not the Christ.” They asked him, “Then who are you? Are you Elijah?” He said, “I am not.” “Are you the Prophet?” He answered, “No.” – John 1:19-21

[edit]Josephus

An account of John the Baptist is found in all extant manuscripts of the Jewish Antiquities (book 18, chapter 5, 2) by Flavius Josephus (37–100):[42] “Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod’s army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, that was called the Baptist: for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God’s displeasure to him.[43] As with other passages in Josephus relating to Christian themes concern remains over whether the passage was part of Josephus’s original text or instead a later addition – it can be dated back no further than the early 3rd century whenit is quoted by Origen in Contra Celsum. According to this passage, the execution of John was blamed for a defeat Herod suffered c. 36 CE. Divergences between the passage’s presentation and the Biblical accounts of John include baptism for those whose souls have already been “purified beforehand by righteousness” is for purification of the body, not general repentance of sin (Mark 1:4[30]). Biblical scholar John Dominic Crossan differentiates between Josephus’s account of John and Jesus like this: “John had a monopoly, but Jesus had a franchise.” To get baptized, Crossan writes, you went only to John; to stop the movement one only needed to stop John (therefore his movement ended with his death). Jesus invited all to come and see how he and his companions had already accepted the Government of God, entered it and were living it. Such a communal praxis was not just for himself, but could survive without him, unlike John’s movement.[44]

[edit]Christian

[edit]Early Jewish Christian sects Among the early Judaistic Christian groups the Ebionites held that John, along with Jesus and James the Just – all of whom they revered – were vegetarians.[45][46][47][48][49][50] Epiphanius of Salamisrecords that this group had amended their Gospel of Matthew, known today as the Gospel of the Ebionites, to change where John eats “locusts” to read “honey cakes” or “manna“.[51][52] [edit]Eastern Orthodox Church

Eastern Orthodox icon John the Baptist — the Angel of the Desert (Stroganov School, 1620s) Tretyakov GalleryMoscow. The Eastern Orthodox faithful believe that John was the last of the Old Testament prophets, thus serving as a bridge between that period of revelation and the New Covenant. They also teach that, following his death, John descended into Hades and there once more preached that Jesus the Messiah was coming, so he was the Forerunner of Christ in death as he had been in life. According to Sacred Tradition, John the Baptist appears at the time of death to those who have not heard the Gospel of Christ, and preaches the Good News to them, that all may have the opportunity to be saved. Orthodox churches will often have an icon of St. John the Baptist in a place of honor on the iconostasis, and he is frequently mentioned during the Divine Services. Every Tuesday throughout the year is dedicated to his memory. The Eastern Orthodox Church remembers Saint John the Forerunner on six separate feast days, listed here in order in which they occur during the church year (which begins on September 1):

  • September 23 — Conception of St. John the Forerunner[53]
  • January 7 — The Synaxis of St. John the Forerunner. This is his main feast day, immediately afterTheophany on January 6 (January 7 also commemorates the transfer of the relic of the right hand of John the Baptist from Antioch to Constantinople in 956)
  • February 24 — First and Second Finding of the Head of St. John the Forerunner
  • May 25 — Third Finding of the Head of St. John the Forerunner
  • June 24 — Nativity of St. John the Forerunner
  • August 29 — The Beheading of St. John the Forerunner

In addition to the above, September 5 is the commemoration of Zechariah and Elisabeth, St. John’s parents. The Russian Orthodox Church observes October 12 as the Transfer of the Right Hand of the Forerunner from Malta to Gatchina (1799). [edit]Catholic Church

A ‘Head of St John’, in Rome

Tomb of St. John the Baptist at aCoptic monastery in Lower Egypt. The bones of St. John the Baptist were said to have been found here. ‎ The Roman Catholic Church commemorates St. John the Baptist on two feast days:

[edit]Relics The burial-place of John the Baptist was at Sebaste inSamaria, and mention is made of his relics being honored there around the middle of the 4th century. The historiansRufinus and Theodoretus record that the shrine wasdesecrated under Julian the Apostate around 362, the bones being partly burned. A portion of the rescued relics were carried to Jerusalem, then to Alexandria, where on May 27, 395, they were laid in the basilica that was newly dedicated to the Forerunner on the former site of the temple of Serapis. The tomb at Sebaste continued, nevertheless, to be visited by pious pilgrims, and St. Jerome bears witness to miracles being worked there. What became of the head of John the Baptist is difficult to determine. Nicephorus[54] and Symeon Metaphrastes say that Herodias had it buried in the fortress of Machaerus (in accordance with Josephus). Other writers say that it was interred in Herod’s palace at Jerusalem; there it was found during the reign of Constantine I, and thence secretly taken toEmesa, in Phoenicia, where it was concealed, the place remaining unknown for years, until it was manifested byrevelation in 453. However, the decapitation cloth of St. John is kept at the Aachen Cathedral. The Coptic Christian Orthodox Church also claim to hold the relics of St. John the Baptist. These are to be found in a monastery in Lower Egypt between Cairo and Alexandria. It is possible, with permission from the monks, to see the original tomb where the remains were found. An obscure and surprising claim relates to the town of Halifax in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom, where the Baptist’s head appears on the official coat-of-arms. A legend first recorded in the late 16th century and reported in William Camden‘s Britanniaaccounts for the town’s place-name, as ‘halig’ (holy) and ‘fax’ (face), by stating that the first religious settlers of the district brought the ‘face’ of John the Baptist with them.[55] John’s skull is is located at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, the Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great inScetesEgypt.[56] at Gandzasar Monastery‘s Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, in Nagorno Karabakh, the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus. (Extant).[57], and San Silvestro in Capite in Rome, and theResidenz Museum in Munich, Germany, (official residence of the Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria from 1385 to 1918). Further heads, no longer available, were once held by the Knights TemplarAmiens Cathedral in France (brought home by Wallon de Sarton from the Fourth Crusade in Constantinople),Antioch in Turkey (fate uncertain), and the parish church at Tenterden in Kent, where it was preserved up until the Reformation. The saint’s right hand, with which he baptised Jesus, is in the Serbian Orthodox Cetinje monastery inMontenegro, and also in the Romanian skete of the Forerunner on Mount Athos. A further hand – it is unclear which – is preserved in the Armenian Apostolic Church of St. John at Chinsurah, West Bengal, where each year on “Chinsurah Day” in January it blesses the Armenians of Calcutta.[58] An arm, with or without a hand, is at the Topkapi Palace.[56] [edit]Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints According to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, latter-day revelation confirms the biblical account and also makes known additional events in the ministry of John the Baptist. According to this belief, revelation reveals that John was “ordained by an angel,” when he was 8 days of age, to overthrow the kingdom of the Jews and to prepare a people for the Lord. They also claim that he was baptized while yet in his childhood.[59] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that John the Baptist appeared on the banks of the Susquehanna River near Harmony Township, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania (present-dayOakton) as a resurrected being to Joseph Smith, Jr. and Oliver Cowdery on May 15, 1829, and ordained them to the Aaronic priesthood.[60][61] According to LDS doctrine, John the Baptist’s ministry has operated in three dispensations: he was the last of the prophets under the law of Moses; he was the first of the New Testament prophets; and he was sent to confer the Aaronic priesthood in our day, the dispensation of the fulness of times. They also believe John’s ministry was foretold by two prophets whose teachings are included in the Book of MormonLehi[62] and his son, Nephi (Book of Mormon 1 Nephi 11:27; Nephi 31:4-18;[63][64]).

[edit]Islam

“Yahya” redirects here. For other uses, see Yahya (disambiguation).

Prophet Yahya Prophet, Seer, Messenger, Forerunner of Jesus

Cristofano Allori‘s imagining of John the Baptist in the desert

Born 6-2 B.C. Jerusalem
Resting place Umayyad MosqueDamascus
Other names New Testament: John the Baptist
Known for Being a gift from God to his father Zachariah, Prophesying with the scripture, Attaining wisdom in youth
Parents Zachariah and Elizabeth
Relatives Cousin of Jesus, Nephew of Mary

Yayā ibn Zakarīyā (Arabic: يحيى بن زكريا‎), translated literally as “John, son of Zechariah”, was an Islamic prophet also known as the New Testament figure John the Baptist. He is believed by Muslims to have been a witness to the word of God, and a prophet who would herald the coming of Jesus.[65] His father Zachariah was also an Islamic prophet. Islamic tradition maintains that John was one of the prophets that Muhammad met on the night of the Mi’raj,[66] his ascension through the Seven Heavens. It is said that he met John and Jesus in the second heaven, where Muhammad greeted his two ‘brothers’ before ascending with archangel Gabriel to the third heaven. John’s story was also told to the Abyssinianking during the Muslim refugees’ Migration to Abyssinia.[67] According to the Qur’an, John was one on whom God sent peace on the day that he was born and the day that he died.[68] John is also important for paving the way for Jesus, who prophesied to Israel after him.[69] [edit]John’s narrative in Islam In the Qur’anGod frequently mentions Zechariah’s continuous praying for the birth of son. Zechariah’s wife, mentioned in the New Testament as Elizabeth, was barren and therefore the birth of a child seemed impossible.[70] As a gift from God, Zechariah was given a son by the name of “Yahya”, a name specially chosen for this child alone. In accordance with Zechariah’s prayer, God made John and Jesus, who according to exegesiswas born six months later,[71] renew the message of God, which had been corrupted and lost by the Israelites. As the Qur’an says: (His prayer was answered): “O Zakariya! We give thee good news of a son: His name shall be Yahya: on none by that name have We conferred distinction before.” He said: “O my Lord! How shall I have a son, when my wife is barren and I have grown quite decrepit from old age?” He said: “So (it will be) thy Lord saith, ‘that is easy for Me: I did indeed create thee before, when thou hadst been nothing!'” (Zakariya) said: “O my Lord! give me a Sign.” “Thy Sign,” was the answer, “Shall be that thou shalt speak to no man for three nights, although thou art not dumb.” —Qur’an, sura 19 (Maryam), verse 7[72] John was exhorted to hold fast to the Scripture and was given wisdom by God while still a child.[73] He was pure and devout, and walked well in the presence of God. He was dutiful towards his parents and he was not arrogant or rebellious. John’s reading and understanding of the scriptures, when only a child, surpassed even that of the greatest scholars of the time.[70] Muslim exegesis narrates thatJesus sent John out with twelve disciples,[74] who preached the message before Jesus called his own disciples.[71] The Qur’an says of John: (To Zachariah’s son came the command): “O John! take hold of the Book with might”: and We gave him Wisdom even as a youth, —Qur’an, sura 19 (Maryam), ayah 12[73] John was a classical prophet,[75] who was exalted high by God, for his bold denouncing of all things sinful. Furthermore, the Qur’an speaks of John’s gentle pity and love for all creatures and his humble attitude towards life, for which he was granted the Purity of Life: And piety (for all creatures) as from Us, and purity: He was devout, And kind to his parents, and he was not overbearing or rebellious. So Peace on him the day he was born, the day that he dies, and the day that he will be raised up to life (again)! —Qur’an, sura 19 (Maryam), ayah 13-15[68] [edit]Shrine

Shrine of Yahya located at the Umayyad MosqueDamascus.[76] The veneration of Yahya prevailed among some Muslim groups who were partly influenced by Byzantine Christianpractices. This veneration, according to Muslim scholarAlberonius, included a feast commemorating Yahya’s beheading on the 29th of the Hebrew month of Av. A shrine existing through to modern times is the oratory (maqām) of Yahya, located in the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus. Some early reports mention that Umayyad caliph al-Walid Iunearthed the head of Yahya and placed it in a pillar in Damascus, which had an architectural capital shaped like a basket of palm leaves.[76]

Grave of Yahya Nabi,inside the shrineUmayyad Mosque Other sources, such as the Iraqi scholar al-Harawī, mention that the head had been transferred to the city ofAleppo by Mu’izz al-Daula Thimal bin Salih of theMirdasid dynasty in 1043. Historians Zayd b. al-Hasan al-Kindī and Ibn al-Adim note that the head was then stored in the upper oratory of the Citadel of Aleppowithin a basin made of marble. The head was later evacuated to the Aleppo congregational mosque due to invading Mongol forces who had burned down the Aleppo citadel and upper oratory. There, according to Ibn Shaddad, it was buried west of the minbar (pulpit), with another oratory built for it. It thus became another spot of veneration for Yahya, and a place where some Syrians believed extra blessings (barakah) existed.[76]

[edit]Other views

[edit]Mandaean view

Titian, 1542 John the Baptist plays a large part in some Mandaean writings, especially those dating from the Islamic period.[77] They view John as the only true Messiah. [edit]Bahá’í view There are numerous quotations in the writings of Bahá’u’lláh, Founder of the Bahá’í Faith mentioning John the Baptist. He is regarded by Bahá’ís as a lesser Prophet.[8] Bahá’u’lláh claimed that his Forerunner, the Báb, was the spiritual return of John the Baptist. In his letter to Pope Pius IX, Bahá’u’lláh wrote: “O followers of the Son! We have once again sent John unto you, and He, verily, hath cried out in the wilderness of the Bayán: O peoples of the world! Cleanse your eyes! The Day whereon ye can behold the Promised One and attain unto Him hath drawn nigh! O followers of the Gospel! Prepare the way! The Day of the advent of the Glorious Lord is at hand! Make ready to enter the Kingdom. Thus hath it been ordained by God, He Who causeth the dawn to break.”[78] However, Bahá’ís consider the Báb to be a greater Prophet (Manifestation of God) and thus possessed of a far greater station than John the Baptist. [edit]Gnostic and anthroposophic views In Gnosticism, John the Baptist was a “personification” of the Old Testament prophet Elijah. Elijah did not know the True God (as opposed to the Abrahamic God), and thus had to be reincarnated in Gnostic theology. As predicted by the Old Testament prophet Malachi, Elijah must “come first” to herald the coming of Jesus Christ. Modern anthroposophy, initiated by Rudolf Steiner, concurs with the idea that the Baptist was a reincarnation of Elijah, in line with the Synoptic Gospels (e.g. Mark 9:11-13,[79] Matthew 11:13-14,[80] Luke 7:27[81]), although the Gospel of John explicitly denies this (John 1:21[82]). Furthermore, after his beheading at Machaerus his soul is said to have become the inspiring group genius of Christ’s disciples. According to Steiner, the painter Raphael and the poetNovalis were more recent incarnations of John the Baptist.[83] [edit]Unification church The Unification Church teaches that God intended that John help Jesus during his public ministry in Judea. In particular, John should have done everything in his power to persuade the Jewish people that Jesus was the Messiah. He was to become Jesus’ greatest disciple. John’s failure to do so was the chief obstacle to the fulfillment of Jesus’ mission.[84]

[edit]In art

John has been one of the saints most frequently appearing in Christian art. The Baptism of Christ was one of the earliest scenes from the Life of Christ to be frequently depicted in Early Christian art, and John’s tall thin, even gaunt, and bearded figure is already established by the 5th century. Only he and Jesus are consistently shown with long hair from Early Christian times, when the apostles generally have trim classical cuts; in fact John is more consistently depicted in this way than Jesus. InByzantine art the composition of the Deesis came to be included in every Eastern Orthodox church, as remains the case to this day. Here John and the Theotokos (Mary) flank a Christ Pantocrator and intercede for humanity; in many ways this is the equivalent of Western Crucifixions on roods and elsewhere, where John the Evangelist takes the place of John the Baptist (except in the idiosyncraticIsenheim Altarpiece). John the Baptist is very often shown on altarpieces designed for churches dedicated to him, or where the donor patron was named for him or there was some other connection of patronage – John was the patron saint of Florence, among many other cities, which means he features among the supporting saints in many important works.

Byzantine mosaic (12th century) in Hagia Sophia inIstanbul
12th century ByzantineDeesis
“Deesis row”, as usual at the centre of theIconostasisCathedral of the AnnunciationMoscow Kremlin, by Theophanes the Greek, 1405.
11th century Baptism of Christ with a typical medieval solution to the problem of depicting the river.
Rogier van der WeydenBaptism, from analtarpiece with three scenes from the life of John (Gemäldegalerie, Berlin).

A number of narrative scenes from his life were often shown on the predella of altarpieces dedicated to John, and other settings, notably the large series in grisaille fresco in the Chiostro del Scalzo, which was Andrea del Sarto‘s largest work, and the frescoed Life by Domenico Ghirlandaio in the Tornabuoni Chapel, both in Florence. There is another important fresco cycle by Filippo Lippi in Prato Cathedral. These include the typical scenes:[85] the Annunciation to Zechariah, John’s birth, his naming by his father, the Visitation, John’s departure for the desert, his preaching in the desert, the Baptism of Christ, John before Herod, the dance of Salome, and his beheading. His birth, which unlike the Nativity of Jesus allowed a relatively wealthy domestic interior to be shown, became increasingly popular as a subject in the late Middle Ages, with depictions by Jan van Eyck (?) in the Turin-Milan Hours and Ghirlandaio in the Tornabuoni Chapel being among the best known. His execution, a Church feast-day, was often shown, and by the 15th century scenes such as the dance of Salome became popular, sometimes, as in an engraving by Israhel van Meckenem, the interest of the artist is clearly in showing the life of Herod’s court, given contemporary dress, as much as the martyrdom of the saint.[86] Salome bearing John’s head on a platter equally became a subject for the Northern Renaissance taste for images of glamorous but dangerous women (DelilahJudith and others),[87] and was often painted by Lucas Cranach the Elder and engraved by the Little Masters. These images remained popular into the Baroque, with Carlo Dolci painting at least three versions. John preaching, in a landscape setting, was a popular subject in Dutch art from Pieter Brueghel the Elder and his successors.

The Annunciation to Zachary, as usual shown officiating at the Temple in Jerusalem. Tornabuoni Chapel
Above, the Birth, below, theBaptism of Christ, perhapsJan van EyckTurin-Milan Hours.
John (shown twice) sets off for the desert, apredella scene byGiovanni di Paolo.
John preaching in the wilderness, a 19th century depiction

As a child (of varying age), he is sometimes shown from the 15th century in family scenes from the life of Christ such as the Presentation of Christ, the Marriage of the Virgin and the Holy KinshipLeonardo da Vinci‘s versions of the Virgin of the Rocks were influential in establishing a Renaissance fashion for variations on the Madonna and Child that included John, probably intended to depict the cousin’s reunion in Egypt, when after Jesus’s Flight to Egypt John was believed to have been carried to join him by an angel[citation needed]Raphael in particular painted many compositions of the subject, such as the Alba MadonnaLa belle jardinièreAldobrandini MadonnaMadonna della seggiolaMadonna dell’Impannata, which were among his best known works. John was also often shown by himself as an older child or adolescent, usually already wearing his distinctive dress and carrying a long thin wooden cross – another theme influenced by Leonardo, whose equivocal composition, reintroducing the camel-skin dress, was developed by Raphael Titian and Guido Reni among many others. Often he is accompanied by a lamb, especially in the many Early Netherlandish paintings which needed this attribute as he wore normal clothes. Caravaggio painted an especially large number of works including John, from at least five largely nude youths attributed to him, to three late works on his death – the great Execution in Malta, and two sombre Salomes with his head, one in Madrid, and one in London. Amiens cathedral, which holds one of the alleged heads of the Baptist, has a biographical sequence in polychrome relief, dating from the 16th century. This stresses the execution and the disposal of the saint’s remains.

  • Biographical sequence from Amiens Cathedral
John’s impending birth is announced to his father, the priestZachariah, who is struck dumb.
Visitation of the Virgin Mary to John’s mother,St Elizabeth, who feels him stir in the womb.
John is named by Zachariah, who, being dumb, is forced to communicate in writing.
John the Baptist preaches repentancein the desert.
John baptises in theRiver Jordan
John is asked if he is the expected Messiah.
John acclaims Jesusas the Lamb of God.
John is arrested, brought before Herod Antipas and imprisoned.
On the instigation ofHerodiasSalomedemands the head of John.
John is beheaded.
John’s head is presented at the court of Herod Antipas.
The body of John is buried at Sebaste.
Supplications at the tomb of John the Baptist.
John’s body isexhumed and burnt.
John’s ashes are scattered
Brought fromConstantinople by Wallon de Sarton, John’s head is received at Amiens in 1206.

The death of John remained a popular subject throughout the Baroque period. Christ in the House of His Parents by John Everett Millais, 1849-50 A remarkable Pre-Raphaelite portrayal is Christ in the House of His Parents by John Everett Millais. Here the Baptist is shown as a child, wearing a loin covering of animal skins, hurrying to bring a bowl of water to soothe the injured hand of Jesus. Artistic interest enjoyed a considerable revival at the end of the 19th century withSymbolist painters such as Gustave Moreau and Puvis de Chavannes (National Gallery, London). Oscar Wilde‘s playSalome was illustrated by Aubrey Beardsley, giving rise to some of his most memorable images. [edit]In poetry

[edit]Commemoration

See also: Nativity of St. John the Baptist

Wood Sculpture of John The Baptist’s Head by Santiago Martinez Delgado. [edit]As a patron saint John is patron saint of Xewkija-Gozo, Malta, which remember him with a great feast on the Sunday nearest to June 24. Saint John the Baptist is the patron saint ofPuerto Rico, and its capital city San Juan bears his name. In 1521, the island was given its formal name “San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico”, following the usual custom of christening the town with both its formal name and the name which Christopher Columbus had originally given the island, honouring John the Baptist. The indistinct use of “San Juan Bautista” and “Puerto Rico” for calling both the city and the island led to a reversal in practical use by most inhabitants due largely to a map-making error. Therefore by 1746 the name for the city (Puerto Rico) had become that of the entire island, while the name for the island (San Juan Bautista) had become the name for the city. The officialmotto for the island of Puerto Rico also references the saint, Joannes Est Nomen Eius (translated, “John is his name”). He is also a patron saint of Jordan, French Canada, and Newfoundland. The Canadian cities of St. John’s, Newfoundland (1497) and Saint John, New Brunswick (1604) were both named in his honor. In the UK Saint John the Baptist is the patron saint of PenzanceCornwall. His feast day is June 24, celebrated in Quebec as the Fête Nationale du Québec, and in Newfoundland as Discovery Day. Also on the night from June 23 to 24, Saint John is celebrated as the patron saint of Porto, the second largest city in Portugal. An article from June 2004 in The Guardian, remarked that “Porto’s Festa de São João is one of Europe’s liveliest street festivals, yet it is relatively unknown outside the country”.[89] He is also patron of the Knights Hospitaller of Jerusalem, MaltaFlorence, and Genoa, Italy. Saint John the Baptist is also the patron saint of Jordan, his beheading is believed to have taken place in Machaerus in central Jordan. The Baptistines are the name given to a number of religious orders dedicated to the memory of John the Baptist. Saint John is also the patron saint of Lian, BatangasSan Juan, Metro Manila(Philippines) and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Charleston which comprises the entire state of South Carolina. St. John the Baptist is (along with St. John the Evangelist) claimed as a Patron Saint by the fraternal society of Free and Accepted Masons (better known as the Freemasons).[90] [edit]Festivity In many Mediterranean countries the summer solstice is dedicated to St. John. The associated ritual is very similar to midsummer celebrations in the Anglo-Saxon. See also: Fête St-Jean-Baptiste, Festival of San Juan, Saint Jonas Day, St John’s Day (Estonia),Ivan Kupala Day, and Golowan [edit]Locations, churches, and other establishments in his name

Monastery of Saint John the Baptist (4th c.) in the Taron province of historic Armenia

St. John’s, Newfoundland and The Basilica of St. John the Baptist

The Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist, Cesena

[edit]Famous churches

The Catholic Church in Ein Keremon the site where John the Baptist is said to have been born.

St John the Baptist Located on Ha-Notsrim street in the Christian Quarter, Old Jerusalem

[edit]Film and television portrayals

John the Baptist has appeared in a number of screen adaptations of the life of Jesus. Actors who have played John include Robert Ryan in King of Kings (1961), Mario Socrate in The Gospel According to St. Matthew (1964), Charlton Heston in The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965), David Haskell in Godspell(1973), Michael York in Jesus of Nazareth (1977), and Andre Gregory in The Last Temptation of Christ (1988).

[edit]See also
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[edit]References
  1. a b Wetterau, Bruce. World history. New York: Henry Holt and company. 1994.
  2. a b c Cross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3, article “John the Baptist, St”
  3. ^ Funk, Robert W. & the Jesus Seminar (1998). The Acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. San Francisco: Harper; “John the Baptist” cameo, p. 268
  4. ^ Crossan, John Dominic (1998). The Essential Jesus. Edison: Castle Books; p. 146
  5. ^ Harris, Stephen L. (1985) Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield; p. 382
  6. ^ “John the Baptist”. New Bible Dictionary (Third ed.). IVP reference collection. ISBN 0-85110-636-6.
  7. ^ Yahya ibn Zakariyya
  8. a b Compilations (1983). Hornby, Helen (Ed.). ed. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá’í Reference File. Bahá’í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India. p. 475. ISBN 8185091463.
  9. ^ Charles M. Sennott, The body and the blood, Public Affairs Pub, 2003. p 234 Google Link
  10. ^ Jesus as a figure in history: how modern historians view the man from GalileeMark Allan Powell, published by Westminster John Knox Press, page 47 “Few would doubt the basic fact…Jesus was baptized by John”
  11. ^ Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.5.2
  12. ^ “John the Baptist, St.” In: Cross, F. L. (ed.) (1997) The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York1: Oxford University Press “Outside the NT, John is also mentioned by Josephus (Antiq 18.5.2) in a passage of which there is no good reason to doubt the authenticity. Though there are differences in detail, his account and that in the NT are not incompatible. The place of his imprisonment and death are given as the fortress of Machaerus by the Dead Sea.” from page 888
  13. ^ Funk, Robert W. & the Jesus Seminar (1998). The Acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus.San Francisco: Harper; “Mark,” p. 51-161
  14. ^ Meier, John (1994). Mentor, Message, and Miracles (A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Vol. 2)2. Anchor Bible. ISBN 0385469926.
  15. a b Stephen L. Harris, Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. ISBN 1-55934-655-8Matthew 17:12–13
  16. ^ Luke 1:36
  17. ^ The story appears in Matthew 14:8 and Mark 6:25, without the name Salome
  18. ^ “John the Baptist, St.” Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  19. ^ Just, Arthur A.; Oden, Thomas C. (2003), Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture – Luke: New Testament III, InterVarsity Press; p. 10. Luke 1:7
  20. ^ Luke 1:5
  21. ^ ‘Aaron’, In: Mills, Watson E. (ed.) (1998) Mercer Dictionary of the Bible, Vol. 5, Macon GA: Mercer University Press, ISBN 0-86554-299-6; page 1
  22. ^ Luke 1:44
  23. ^ Brown, Raymond Edward (1973), The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus, Paulist Press, p. 54
  24. ^ Vermes, Geza. The Nativity, p. 143.
  25. ^ Englebert, Omer (1951). The Lives of the SaintsNew York: Barnes & Noble. p. 529. ISBN 978-1566195164.
  26. ^ Luke 1:20“And, behold, thou shalt be dumb, and not able to speak, until the day that these things shall be performed, because thou believest not my words….”
  27. ^ Luke 1:64“And he asked for a writing table, and wrote, saying, His name is John. And they marvelled all. And his mouth was opened immediately, and his tongue loosed, and he spoke….”
  28. ^ Freed, Edwin D. (2001), The Stories of Jesus’ Birth: a Critical Introduction Continuum International, pp. 87-90.
  29. ^ John 1:29–36
  30. a b Mark 1:4
  31. ^ Matthew 3:13–15
  32. ^ John 3:22–36
  33. ^ John 4:2
  34. ^ John 5:35
  35. ^ Acts 18:24–19:6
  36. ^ John 1:35–42
  37. ^ Harold W. Attridge“Historical problems with John the Baptist”From Jesus to Christ: A Portrait of Jesus’ WorldPBS. Retrieved 2007-10-31.
  38. ^ Malachi 3:1
  39. ^ Mat 3:3 For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
  40. ^ Mar 1:2 As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee. Mar 1:3 The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
  41. ^ Luk 1:16-17 And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God. And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.
  42. ^ “Josephus, Flavius.” In: Cross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press
  43. ^ Flavius JosephusJewish Antiqities 18. 5. 2. (Translation by William Whiston).
  44. ^ Crossan, John Dominic (2007), God and Empire, London: HarperCollins, p. 117 ff
  45. ^ J Verheyden, Epiphanius on the Ebionites, in The image of the Judaeo-Christians in ancient Jewish and Christian literature, eds Peter J. Tomson, Doris Lambers-Petry, ISBN 3-16-148094-5, pp. 188 “The vegetarianism of John the Baptist and of Jesus is an important issue too in the Ebionite interpretation of the Christian life. “
  46. ^ Robert Eisenman (1997), James the Brother of Jesus, p.240 – “John (unlike Jesus) was both a ‘Rechabite’ or ‘Nazarite’ and vegetarian”, p.264 – “One suggestion is that John ate ‘carobs’; there have been others. Epiphanius, in preserving what he calls ‘the Ebionite Gospel’, rails agains the passage there claiming that John ate ‘wild honey’ and ‘manna-like vegetarian cakes dipped in oil. … John would have been one of those wilderness-dwelling, vegetable-eating persons”, p.326 – “They [the Nazerini] ate nothing but wild fruit milk and honey – probably the same food that John the Baptist also ate.”, p.367 – “We have already seen how in some traditions ‘carobs’ were said to have been the true composition of John’s food.”, p.403 – “his [John’s] diet was stems, roots and fruits. Like James and the other Nazirites/Rechabites, he is presented as a vegetarian ..”.
  47. ^ James TaborThe Jesus Dynasty p.134 and footnotes p.335, p.134 – “The Greek New Testament gospels says John’s diet consisted of “locusts and wild honey” but an ancient Hebrew version of Matthew insists that “locusts” is a mistake in Greek for a related Hebrew word that means a cake of some type, made from a desert plant, similar to the “manna” that the ancient Israelites ate in the desert on the days of Moses.(ref 9) Jesus describes John as “neither eating nor drinking,” or “neither eating bread nor drinking wine.” Such phrases indicate the lifestyle of one who is strictly vegetarian, avoids even bread since it has to be processed from grain, and shuns all alcohol.(ref 10) The idea is that one would eat only what grows naturally.(ref 11) It was a way of avoiding all refinements of civilization.”
  48. ^ Bart D. Ehrman (2003). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press. pp. 102, 103. ISBN 0-19-514183-0. p.102 – “Probably the most interesting of the changes from the familiar New Testament accounts of Jesus comes in the Gospel of the Ebionites description of John the Baptist, who, evidently, like his successor Jesus, maintained a strictly vegetarian cuisine.”
  49. ^ James A. Kelhoffer, The Diet of John the BaptistISBN 9783161484605, pp. 19-21
  50. ^ G.R.S. Mead (2007). Gnostic John the Baptizer: Selections from the Mandæan John-Book. Forgotten Books. p. 104. ISBN 978-1605062105. p.104 – “And when he had been brought to Archelaus and the doctors of the Law had assembled, they asked him who he is and where he has been until then. And to this he made answer and spake: I am pure; [for] the Spirit of God hath led me on, and [I live on] cane and roots and tree-food.
  51. ^ Tabor (2006) Jesus Dynasty p.334 (note 9) – “The Gospel of the Ebionites as quoted by the 4th-century writer Epiphanius. The Greek word for locusts (akris) is very similar to the Greek word for “honey cake” (ekris) that is used for the “manna” that the Israelites ate in the desert in the days of Moses (Exodus 16:32)” & p.335 (note 11) – “There is an old Russian (Slavic) version of Josephus’sAntiquities that describes John the Baptizer as living on ‘roots and fruits of the tree’ and insists that he never touches bread, even at Passover.”
  52. ^ Bart D. Ehrman (2003). Lost Scriptures: Books that Did Not Make It into the New Testament. Oxford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-19-514182-2. p.13 – Referring to Epiphanius’ quotation from theGospel of the Ebionites in Panarion 30.13, “And his food, it says, was wild honey whose taste was ofmanna, as cake in oil”.
  53. ^ In late antiquity this feast in some churches marked the beginning of the Ecclesiastical Year; see Archbishop Peter (L’Huiller) of New York and New Jersey, “Liturgical Matters: “The Lukan Jump”“, in:Newspaper of the Diocese of New York and New Jersey, Fall 1992.
  54. ^ Nicephorus, Ecclesiastical History I, ix. See Patrologia Graeca, cxlv.–cxlvii.
  55. ^ Clucas, W. “Early Halifax”, Hull Quarterly & East Riding Portfolio, reprinted Barnwell, Hull, 1885, p.2-4; Watson, Rev. John. The History of the Town and Parish of Halifax, Milner, Halifax, 1789, p. 90–92
  56. a b “The Monastery of St. Macarius the Great”. Stmacariusmonastery.org. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
  57. ^ Lost Worlds: Knights Templar, July 10, 2006 video documentary on The History Channel, directed and written by Stuart Elliott
  58. ^ “Hetq Online ” Pilgrimage to the oldest Armenian Apostolic Church in India”. Hetq.am. 2010-01-10. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
  59. ^ “Doctrine and Covenants 84:27–28”. Scriptures.lds.org. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
  60. ^ [D&C 13]; D&C 27:7–8
  61. ^ Joseph Smith History 1:68–72
  62. ^ “THE FIRST BOOK OF NEPHI Chapter 10”. Scriptures.lds.org. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
  63. ^ 1 Nephi 11:27
  64. ^ 2 Nephi 31:4-18
  65. ^ “Yahya”, Encyclopedia of Islam
  66. ^ Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah, Mi’raj
  67. ^ Muhammad, Martin Lings, Abysinnia. etc.
  68. a b Qur’an 19:13–15
  69. ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, John the Prophet
  70. a b Lives of the Prophets, Leila Azzam, John and Zechariah
  71. a b A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, John the Baptist
  72. ^ Qur’an 19:7–10
  73. a b Qur’an 19:12
  74. ^ Tabari, i, 712
  75. ^ Abdullah Yusuf AliThe Holy Qur’an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Note. 905: “The third group consists not of men of action, but Preachers of Truth, who led solitary lives. Their epithet is: “the Righteous.” They form a connected group round Jesus. Zachariah was the father of John the Baptist, who is referenced as “Elias, which was for to come” (Matt 11:14); and Elias is said to have been present and talked to Jesus at the Transfiguration on the Mount (Matt. 17:3).”
  76. a b c Meri (2002) pp. 200–01
  77. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article Mandaeans
  78. ^ Bahá’u’lláh (2002). The Summons of the Lord of Hosts. Haifa, Israel: Bahá’í World Centre. p. 63.ISBN 0853989761.
  79. ^ Mark 9:11–13
  80. ^ Matthew 11:13–14
  81. ^ Luke 7:27
  82. ^ John 1:21
  83. ^ Sergei Prokofieff, The Mystery of John the Baptist and John the Evangelist Turning Point of Time: An Esoteric StudyISBN 1-902636-67-8
  84. ^ Divine Principle Chapter 4, Section 2
  85. ^ See Tornabuoni Chapel for further information on these scenes
  86. ^ “Engraving by Israhel van Meckenem”. Artsmia.org. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
  87. ^ On this see Chaper V, “The Power of Women”, in H Diane Russell;Eva/Ave; Women in Renaissance and Baroque Prints; National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1990; ISBN 1-55861-039-1
  88. ^ Robin, Larsen and Levin. p. 368.
  89. ^ Matthew Hancock (June 12, 2004). “The Guardian, June 12, 2004, “There’s only one São João””. London: Guardian. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
  90. ^ “Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry”. Freemasons-freemasonry.com. Retrieved 2010-02-14.
[edit]Notes

[edit]Books on John the Baptist

  • Brooks Hansen (2009) John the Baptizer: A Novel. New York: W. W. NortonISBN 978-0-393-06947-1
  • Murphy, Catherine M. (2003) John the Baptist: Prophet of Purity for a New Age. Collegeville: Liturgical Press. ISBN 0-8146-5933-0
  • Taylor, Joan E. (1997) The Immerser: John the Baptist within Second Temple Judaism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-4236-4
  • W. Barnes Tatum (1994) John the Baptist and Jesus: A Report of the Jesus Seminar., Sonoma, California: Polebridge Press, 1994, ISBN 0-944344-42-9
  • Webb, Robert L. (1991) John the Baptizer and Prophet: a Socio-Historical Study. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59752-986-0 (first published Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1991)

[edit]Accounts in ancient literature

  • Josephus wrote that “…Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the remission of some sins, but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness.” (Josephus, AJ, 18.5.2)

[edit]Islamic view

  • Rippin, A.. “Yahya b. Zakariya”. In P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
  • J.C.L Gibson, John the Baptist in Muslim writings, in MW, xlv (1955), 334-345

[edit]Passages in the Qur’an

[edit]External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: John the Baptist
Wikisource has the text of the1911 Encyclopædia Britannicaarticle John the Baptist.
Look up John the Baptist inWiktionary, the free dictionary.

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Categories0s BC births | 1st-century Christian saints | 1st-century Romans | 30s deaths |Apocalypticists | Baptism | Founders of religions | John the Baptist | Judaism-related controversies |New Testament people | Palestinian Roman Catholic saints | People celebrated in the Lutheran liturgical calendar | People executed by decapitation | Prophets in Christianity | Prophets of Islam |Roman era Jews | Saints from the Holy Land

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Annas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the Jewish High Priest. For the Indian currency unit, see Indian anna.

Statue of Annas in Bom JesusBraga Annas [also Ananus[1] or Ananias[2]], son of Seth (23/22 BC–66 AD), was appointed by the Roman legate Quiriniusas the first High Priest of the newly formed Roman province of Iudaea in 6 AD; just after the Romans had deposedArchelaus, Ethnarch of Judaea, thereby putting Judaea directly under Roman rule. Annas officially served as High Priest for ten years (6–15 AD), when at the age of 36 he was deposed by the procurator Gratus ‘for imposing and executing capital sentences which had been forbidden by the imperial government.’[3] Yet while having been officially removed from office, he remained as one of the nation’s most influential political and social individuals, aided greatly by the use of his five sons and his son-in-law as puppet High Priests[4]until his assassination in 66 AD for advocating peace with Rome.[2] Annas appears in the Gospels and Passion plays as a high priest before whom Jesus is brought for judgment, prior to being brought before Pontius Pilate.

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[edit]The Sacerdotal Family

References in the Mosaic Law to “the death of the high priest” (Num 35:25, 28) suggest that the high-priesthood was ordinarily held for life. Perhaps for this reason, Annas was still called “high priest” even after his dismissal, along with Caiaphas (Luke 3:2). He also may have been acting as president of theSanhedrin, or a coadjutor of the high priest.

[edit]In the New Testament

Luke 3:2 indicates a joint high priesthood “of Annas and Caiaphas” when the word of God came to John the son of Zechariah in the wilderness. Although Annas is not mentioned by name in the plot to kill Lazarus, there may be a concealed message in the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus pointing at Annas and his sons. If it is considered that rich man dressed in purple and fine linen (cf. Exodus 28:8) represents Caiaphas, as figurehead of the Sadducees, then Annas is intended by the “father” in Luke 16:27, and the “five brothers” Luke 16:28 are Annas’ five sons. In support of this is the coincidence that the father and five brothers who will not be convinced even if the parable Lazarus is raised from the dead (Luke 16:31) predict the actuality that Caiaphas, Annas, and the five sons of Annas did not in fact believe and plotted to have the real Lazarus killed when he was raised (John 12:10). According to the Gospel of John (the event is not mentioned in other accounts), Jesus was first brought before Annas, and after a brief questioning of him (John 18:19-23) was sent to Caiaphas, where some members of the Sanhedrin had met, and the first trial of Jesus took place (Matt. 26:57-68). After Pentecost, he presided over the Sanhedrin before which the Apostles Peter and John were brought (Acts 4:6).

[edit]Pop Culture References

Annas has an important role in Jesus Christ Superstar, spurring Caiaphas to take action against Jesus. In almost all versions, Annas has a very high voice (almost reaching falsetto) to contrast against Caiaphas’ bass. This article incorporates text from Easton’s Bible Dictionary (1897), a publication now in the public domain.

[edit]References
  1. ^ Josephus, The Complete Works, Thomas Nelson Publishers (Nashville, Tennessee, USA), 20.9.1 (1998)
  2. a b Goodman, Martin, “Rome & Jerusalem”, Penguin Books, p.12 (2007)
  3. ^ Bunch, Taylor G., Behold the Man, Pacific Press Publishing Association (Mountain View, California, USA), p.59 (1940)
  4. ^ “It is said that the elder Ananus was extremely fortunate. For he had five sons, all of whom, after he himself had previously enjoyed the office for a very long period, became high priests of God – a thing that had never happened to any other of our high priests.” (Josephus, Jewish Antiquities XX, 9.1)
[edit]External links
Wikisource has the text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia‘s article about Annas.

Preceded by Joazar ben Boethus

High Priest of Israel ca.615

Succeeded by Ishmael ben Fabus

CategoriesHigh Priests of Israel | 1st-century clergy | Gospel episodes | New Testament people

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Pontius Pilate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “Pilate” redirects here. For other uses, see Pilate (disambiguation).

Ecce Homo (“Behold the Man”), Antonio Ciseri’s depiction of Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people ofJerusalem. Pontius Pilatus (Greek: Πόντιος Πιλᾶτος,Pontios Pilātos), known in the English-speaking world as Pontius Pilate ( /ˈpɒnəs ˈplət/), was the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, from 26–36 CE.[1][2] He is best known as the judge atJesus‘ trial and the man who authorized thecrucifixion of Jesus. As prefect, he served under Emperor Tiberius. The sources for Pilate’s life are the fourcanonical gospels, the works of Philo andJosephus, a brief mention by Tacitus, and an inscription known as the Pilate Stone, which confirms his historicity and establishes his title as prefect. Based on these sources, it appears that Pilate was an equestrian of the Pontii family, and succeeded Valerius Gratusas prefect of Judaea in 26. Once in his post he offended the religious sensibilities of his subjects, leading to harsh criticism from Philo and Josephus. According to Josephus, he was ordered back to Rome after harshly suppressing a Samaritan uprising, arriving just after Tiberius’ death in 36. He was replaced by Marcellus. In all four gospel accounts, Pilate appears in association with the responsibility for the death of Jesus. In Matthew, Pilate washes his hands to show that he was not responsible for the execution of Jesus and reluctantly sends him to his death.[3] Mark, depicting Jesus as innocent of plotting against theRoman Empire, portrays Pilate as extremely reluctant to execute Jesus, blaming the Jewish priestly hierarchy for his death and washing his hands not of Jesus (as in Matthew) but of the Sadducees and of any association with their actions.[3] In Luke, Pilate not only agrees that Jesus did not conspire against Rome, but Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee, also finds nothing treasonable in Jesus’ actions.[3] Scholars have long debated how to interpret Pilate’s portrayal in the sources. Some Biblical scholarshave argued that the Gospel accounts are not historically accurate, with some believing Pilate was a mythical character. The discovery of the Pilate Stone in 1961 confirmed his historicity as a Prefect and added to the credence of the Gospel accounts.

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[edit]Etymology of the cognomen

There are several possible origins for the cognomen Pilatus. A commonly accepted one is that it means “skilled with the javelin“. The pilum (= javelin) was five feet of wooden shaft and two feet of tapered iron. Pontius Pilate’s family name signifies he was from the tribe Pontii, an ancient Samnitename. [4]

[edit]Historicity of Pilate

Further information: Pilate Stone

Limestone cows block discovered in 1961 with Pilate’s tribute in Latin to Tiberius. The words […]TIVS PILATVS[…] can be clearly seen on the second line. Little is known of Pilate. There is an old tradition linking the birthplace of Pilate with the small village of BisentiSamnite territory, in today’sAbruzzo region of Central Italy.[5] It has also been asserted by modern commentators that Pilate may have been born in Fortingall,Perthshire, in Scotland, the illegitimate son of a Roman ambassador sent to pacify the Picts and a Pictish girl. There are ruins of a Roman house known as “The House of Pilate.” Eusebius quoting early apocryphal accounts stated that Pilate suffered misfortune in the reign of Caligula (37–41 CE), was exiled to Gaul and eventually committed suicide there in Vienne.[5] The 10th century historian Agapius of Hierapolis, in his Universal History, says that Pilate committed suicide during the first year of Caligula’s reign, i.e. 37/38 CE.[6] The first physical evidence relating to Pilate was discovered in 1961, when a block of limestone, the Pilate Stone, was found in the Roman theatre at Caesarea Maritima, the capital of the province of Judaea (Iudaea), bearing a damaged dedication by Pilate of aTiberieum.[7] This dedication states that he was […]ECTVS IUDA[…] (usually read as praefectus Iudaeae), that is, prefect of Judaea. The early governors of Judaea were of prefect rank, the later were of procurator rank, beginning with Cuspius Fadus in 44 CE. This inscription was discovered in Caesarea (Israel) by a group led by Antonio Frova and has been dated to 26-37 CE. Currently the inscription is housed in the Israel MuseumJerusalem.[8]

[edit]Titles and duties

Bronze prutah minted by Pontius Pilate. Reverse: Greek letters TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (TiberiusEmperor) and date LIS (year 16 = 29/30 CE) surroundingsimpulum (libation ladle). Obverse: Greek letters IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Julia, the Emperor’s (mother)), three bound heads of barley, the outer two heads drooping. Pontius Pilate’s title was traditionally thought to have been procurator, since Tacitusspeaks of him as such. However, an inscription on a limestone block known as thePilate Stone — a dedication to Tiberius Caesar Augustus — that was discovered in 1961 in the ruins of an amphitheater atCaesarea Maritima refers to Pilate as “Prefect of Judaea”.[9] The title used by the governors of the region varied over the period of the New Testament. When SamariaJudea proper and Idumeawere first amalgamated into the RomanJudaea Province (which some modern historians spell Iudaea),[10] from 6 CE to the outbreak of the First Jewish Revolt in 66, officials of the Equestrian order (the lower rank of governors) governed. They held the Roman title of prefect until Herod Agrippa I was named King of the Jews by Claudius. After Herod Agrippa’s death in 44, when Iudaea reverted to direct Roman rule, the governor held the title procurator. When applied to governors, this term procurator, otherwise used for financial officers, connotes no difference in rank or function from the title known as prefect. Contemporary archaeological finds and documents such as the Pilate Inscription from Caesarea attest to the governor’s more accurate official title only for the years 6 through 44: prefect. The logical conclusion is that texts that identify Pilate as procurator are more likely following Tacitus or are unaware of the pre-44 practice. The procurators’ and prefects’ primary functions were military, but as representatives of the empire they were responsible for the collection of imperial taxes,[11] and also had limited judicial functions. Other civil administration lay in the hands of local government: the municipal councils or ethnic governments such as — in the district of Judaea and Jerusalem — the Sanhedrin and its president theHigh Priest. But the power of appointment of the High Priest resided in the Roman legate of Syria or the prefect of Iudaea in Pilate’s day and until 41. For example, Caiaphas was appointed High Priest ofHerod’s Temple by Prefect Valerius Gratus and deposed by Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius. After that time and until 66, the Jewish client kings exercised this privilege. Normally, Pilate resided in Caesarea but traveled throughout the province, especially to Jerusalem, in the course of performing his duties. During the Passover, a festival of deep national as well as religious significance for the Jews, Pilate, as governor or prefect, would have been expected to be in Jerusalem to keep order. He would not ordinarily be visible to the throngs of worshippers because of the Jewish people’s deep sensitivity to their status as a Roman province. Equestrians such as Pilate could command legionary forces but only small ones, and so in military situations, he would have to yield to his superior, the legate of Syria, who would descend into Palestine with his legions as necessary. As governor of Iudaea, Pilate would have small auxiliary forces of locally recruited soldiers stationed regularly in Caesarea and Jerusalem, such as the Antonia Fortress, and temporarily anywhere else that might require a military presence. The total number of soldiers at his disposal numbered in the range of 3000.[12]

[edit]Pilate in the canonical Gospel accounts

Christ before PilateMihály Munkácsy, 1881

Major events in Jesus’ life from the Gospels


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According to the canonical Christian Gospels, Pilate presided at the trial of Jesus and, despite stating that he personally found him not guilty of a crime meriting death, handed him over to crucifixion. Pilate is thus a pivotal character in the New Testamentaccounts of Jesus. According to the New Testament, Jesus was brought to Pilate by the Sanhedrin, who had arrested Jesus and questioned him themselves. The Sanhedrin had, according to the Gospels, only been given answers by Jesus that they considered blasphemous pursuant to Mosaic law, which was unlikely to be deemed a capital offense by Pilate interpreting Roman law.[13] The Gospel of Luke[14]records that members of the Sanhedrin then took Jesus before Pilate where they accused him of sedition against Rome by opposing the payment of taxes to Caesar and calling himself a king. Fomenting tax resistance was a capital offense.[15] Pilate was responsible for imperial tax collections in Judaea. Jesus had asked the tax collector Levi, at work in his tax booth in Capernaum, to quit his post. Jesus also appears to have influenced Zacchaeus, “a chief tax collector” in Jericho, which is in Pilate’s tax jurisdiction, to resign.[16] Pilate’s main question to Jesus was whether he considered himself to be the King of the Jews, and thus a political threat. Mark in the NIV translation states: “Are you the king of the Jews?” asked Pilate. “It is as you say,” Jesus replied. However, quite a number of other translations render Jesus’ reply as variations of the phrase: “Thou sayest it.”(King James Version, Mark 15:2); “So you say.” (Good News Bible, Mark 15:2). Whatever degree of confirmation modern interpreters would derive from this answer of Jesus, according to the New Testament, it was not enough for Pilate to view Jesus as a real political threat. In the same Gospel of Mark, 15 verse 5 of King James Version we read, that “Pilate marveled” (“was amazed” in Good News Bible). Following the Roman custom, Pilate ordered a sign posted above Jesuson the cross stating “Jesus of Nazareth, The King of the Jews” to give public notice of the legal charge against him for his crucifixion. The chief priests protested that the public charge on the sign should read that Jesus claimed to be King of the Jews. Pilate refused to change the posted charge, saying “What I have written, I have written.” This may have been to emphasize Rome’s supremacy in crucifying a Jewish king; it is likely, though, that Pilate was quite irritated by the fact that the Jewish leaders had used him as a marionette and thus compelled him to sentence Jesus to death contrary to his own will (according to Mathew 27:19, even Pilate’s wife spoke to him on Jesus’ behalf). The Gospel of Luke also reports that such questions were asked of Jesus; in Luke’s case it being the priests that repeatedly accused him, though Luke states that Jesus remained silent to such inquisition, causing Pilate to hand Jesus over to the jurisdiction (Galilee) of Herod Antipas. Although initially excited with curiosity at meeting Jesus, of whom he had heard much, Herod (according to Luke) ended up mocking Jesus and so sent him back to Pilate. This intermediate episode with Herod is not reported by the other Gospels, which appear to present a continuous and singular trial in front of Pilate. Luke, however, made further reference to this involvement of Herod along with Pilate in Jesus’ execution and linked it with the prophesy about the Messianic King found in Psalm 2, as we can read in Luke’s other book, Acts 4:24-28. This explains why he counted this episode important. Unlike the synoptic gospels, the Gospel of John gives more detail about that dialog taking place between Jesus and Pilate. In John, Jesus seems to confirm the fact of his kingship, although immediately explaining, that “[his] kingdom [was] not of this world”; of far greater importance for the followers of Christ is his own definition of the goal of his ministry on earth at the time. According to Jesus, as we find it written in John 18:37, Jesus thus describes his mission: ” [I] came into the world … to bear witness to the truth; and all who are on the side of truth listen to [my] voice”, to which Pilate famously replied, “What is truth?” (John 18:38)…

Nikolai GeChrist and Pilate (“What is truth?“), 1890. Whatever it be that some modern critics want to deduce from those differences, the end result was the same for Jesus and Pilate, as it was in all the other three Gospels (Mathew, Mark, Luke). In the same chapter of John 18 verse 38 (King James Version, compare with other versions) the conclusion Pilate made from this interrogation: “I find in him no fault at all”. The Synoptic Gospels and John then state that it had been a tradition of the Jews to release a prisoner at the time of thePassover. Pilate offers them the choice of an insurrectionist named Barabbas or Jesus, somewhat confusing because Barabbas had the full name Jesus Barabbas, and bar-Abbasmeans son of the father. The crowd may not have understood whose release they were asking for and were particularly susceptible to suggestions from the Jewish leaders. The crowd states that they wish to save Barabbas. Pilate agrees to condemn Jesus to crucifixion, after the Jewish leaders explained to him that Jesus presented a threat to Roman occupation through his claim to the throne of King David as King of Israel in the royal line of David. The crowd in Pilate’s courtyard, according to the Synoptics, had been coached by the Pharisees and Sadducees to shout against Jesus. The Gospel of Matthew adds that before condemning Jesus to death, Pilate washes his hands with water in front of the crowd, saying, “I am innocent of this man’s blood; you will see.” [edit]Responsibility for Jesus’ death Further information: Jewish deicide In all gospel accounts, Pilate is reluctant to condemn Jesus, but is eventually forced to give in when the crowd becomes unruly and the Jewish leaders remind him that Jesus’s claim to be king is a challenge to Roman rule and to the Roman deification of Caesar. Roman magistrates had wide discretion in executing their tasks, and some readers question whether Pilate would have been so captive to the demands of the crowd. Pilate was later recalled to Rome for his harsh treatment of the Jews.[17][18] With the Edict of Milan in 313 CE, the state-sponsored persecution of Christians came to an end, and Christianity became officially tolerated as one of the religions of the Roman Empire. Afterwards, in 325 the First Ecumenical Council at Nicaea promulgated a creed which was amended at the subsequentFirst Council of Constantinople in 381. The Nicene Creed incorporated for the first time the clause was crucified under Pontius Pilate (which had already been long established in the Old Roman Symbol, an ancient form of the Apostles’ Creed dating as far back as the 2nd century CE) in a creed that was intended to be authoritative for all Christians in the Roman Empire. Skeptical scholars consider the various trials of Jesus as described in the Gospels to be largely invention rather than historical record.[19] Skeptical scholars also see an authors’ agenda behind the descriptions of a reluctant Pilate.[19] These scholars argue that gospel accounts place the blame on the Jews, not on Rome, in line with the authors’ alleged goal of making peace with the Roman Empire and vilifying the Jews.[19]

[edit]Pilate in Jewish literature

In chronicling the history of the Roman administrators in Judaea, ancient Jewish writers Philo andJosephus describe some of the other events and incidents that took place during Pilate’s tenure. Both report that Pilate repeatedly caused near-insurrections among the Jews because of his insensitivity to Jewish customs. Josephus notes that while Pilate’s predecessors had respected Jewish customs by removing all images and effigies on their standards when entering Jerusalem, Pilate allowed his soldiers to bring them into the city at night. When the citizens of Jerusalem discovered these the following day, they appealed to Pilate to remove the ensigns of Caesar from the city. After five days of deliberation, Pilate had his soldiers surround the demonstrators, threatening them with death, which they were willing to accept rather than submit to desecration of Mosaic law. Pilate finally removed the images. The incident proved to be an early example of effective resistance to tyranny by aggressive, nonviolent means.[20][21] Philo describes a later, similar incident in which Pilate was chastened by Emperor Tiberius after antagonizing the Jews by setting up gold-coated shields in Herod‘s palace in Jerusalem. The shields were ostensibly to honor Tiberius, and this time did not contain engraved images. Philo writes that the shields were set up “not so much to honour Tiberius as to annoy the multitude.” The Jews protested the installation of the shields at first to Pilate, and then, when he declined to remove them, by writing to Tiberius. Philo reports that upon reading the letters, Tiberius “wrote to Pilate with a host of reproaches and rebukes for his audacious violation of precedent and bade him at once take down the shields and have them transferred from the capital to Caesarea.”[22] Josephus recounts another incident in which Pilate spent money from the Temple to build an aqueduct. When Jews again protested his actions, Pilate had soldiers hidden in the crowd of Jews while addressing them. After giving the signal, Pilate’s soldiers randomly attacked, beat, and killed scores of Jews to silence their petitions.[23] In describing his personality, Philo writes that Pilate had “vindictiveness and furious temper,” and was “naturally inflexible, a blend of self-will and relentlessness.” He writes that Pilate feared a delegation that the Jews might send to Tiberius protesting the gold-coated shields, because “if they actually sent an embassy they would also expose the rest of his conduct as governor by stating in full the briberies, the insults, the robberies, the outrages and wanton injuries, the executions without trial constantly repeated, the ceaseless and supremely grievous cruelty.”[22] Pilate’s term as prefect of Judaea ended after an incident recounted by Josephus. A large group ofSamaritans had been persuaded by an unnamed man to go to Mount Gerizim in order to see sacred artifacts allegedly buried by Moses. But at a village named Tirathana, before the crowd could ascend the mountain, Pilate sent in “a detachment of cavalry and heavy-armed infantry, who in an encounter with the firstcomers in the village slew some in a pitched battle and put the others to flight. Many prisoners were taken, of whom Pilate put to death the principal leaders and those who were most influential.”[24] The Samaritans then complained to Vitellius, Roman governor of Syria, who sent Pilate to Rome to explain his actions regarding this incident to Tiberius. However, by the time Pilate got to Rome, Tiberius had died.[25]

[edit]Pilate in the apocrypha

Little enough is known about Pilate, but tradition has tried to fill the gap. A body of legend grew up around the dramatic figure of Pontius Pilate, about whom the Christian faithful hungered to learn more than the canonical Gospels revealed. Eusebius (Historia Ecclesiae ii: 7) quotes some early apocryphal accounts that he does not name, which already relate that Pilate fell under misfortunes in the reign ofCaligula (37–41), was exiled to Gaul and eventually committed suicide there in Vienne. Other details come from less creditable sources. His body, says the Mors Pilati (“Death of Pilate”), was thrown first into the Tiber, but the waters were so disturbed by evil spirits that the body was taken to Vienne and sunk in the Rhône: a monument at Vienne, called Pilate’s tomb, is still to be seen. As the waters of the Rhone likewise rejected Pilate’s corpse, it was again removed and sunk in the lake atLausanne. The sequence was a simple way to harmonise conflicting local traditions. The corpse’s final disposition was in a deep and lonely mountain tarn, which, according to later tradition, was on a mountain, still called Pilatus (actually pileatus or “cloud capped”), overlookingLucerne. Every Good Friday, the body is said to reemerge from the waters and wash its hands. There are many other legends about Pilate in the folklore of Germany, particularly about his birth, according to which Pilate was born in the Franconian city of Forchheim or the small village of Hausenonly 5 km away from it. His death was (unusually) dramatised in a medieval mystery play cycle from Cornwall, the Cornish Ordinalia. Pilate’s role in the events leading to the crucifixion lent themselves to melodrama, even tragedy, and Pilate often has a role in medieval mystery plays. In the Eastern Orthodox ChurchClaudia Procula is commemorated as a saint,[26] but not Pilate, because in the Gospel accounts Claudia urged Pilate not to have anything to do with Jesus. In some Eastern Orthodox traditions, Pilate committed suicide out of remorse for having sentenced Jesus to death. In Switzerland, near Lucerne, is Mount Pilatus. An old tradition is that Pilate went here and was banished to the mountain as a punishment for his crime against Christ. [edit]Gospel of Peter Main article: Gospel of Peter The fragmentary apocryphal Gospel of Peter exonerates Pilate of responsibility for the crucifixion of Jesus, placing it instead on Herod and the Jews, who unlike Pilate refuse to “wash their hands”. After the soldiers see three men and a cross miraculously walking out of the tomb they report to Pilate who reiterates his innocence: “I am pure from the blood of the Son of God”. He then commands the soldiers not to tell anyone what they have seen so that they would not “fall into the hands of the people of the Jews and be stoned”. [edit]Acts of Pilate Main article: Acts of Pilate The 4th century apocryphal text that is called the Acts of Pilate presents itself in a preface (missing in some MSS) as derived from the official acts preserved in the praetorium at Jerusalem. Though the alleged Hebrew original of the document is attributed to Nicodemus, the title Gospel of Nicodemus for this fictional account only appeared in mediaeval times, after the document had been substantially elaborated. Nothing in the text suggests that it is in fact a translation from Hebrew or Aramaic. This text gained wide credit in the Middle Ages, and has considerably affected the legends surrounding the events of the crucifixion, which, taken together, are called the Passion. Its popularity is attested by the number of languages in which it exists, each of these being represented by two or more variant “editions”: Greek (the original), Coptic, Armenian and Latin versions. The Latin versions were printed several times in the 15th and 16th centuries. One class of the Latin manuscripts contain as an appendix or continuation, the Cura Sanitatis Tiberii, the oldest form of the Veronica legend. The Acts of Pilate consist of three sections, whose styles reveal three authors, writing at three different times.

  • The first section (1–11) contains a fanciful and dramatic circumstantial account of the trial of Jesus, based upon Luke 23.
  • The second part (12–16) regards the Resurrection.
  • An appendix, detailing the Descensus ad Infernos was added to the Greek text. This legend of aHarrowing of Hell has chiefly flourished in Latin, and was translated into many European versions. It doesn’t exist in the eastern versions, Syriac and Armenian, that derive directly from Greek versions. In it, Leucius and Charinus, the two souls raised from the dead after the Crucifixion, relate to theSanhedrin the circumstances of Christ’s descent to Limbo. (Leucius Charinus is the traditional name to which many late apocryphal Acta of Apostles is attached.)

Eusebius (325), although he mentions an Acta Pilati that had been referred to by Justin and Tertullianand other pseudo-Acts of this kind, shows no acquaintance with this work. Almost surely it is of later origin, and scholars agree in assigning it to the middle of the 4th century. Epiphanius refers to an Acta Pilati similar to this, as early as 376, but there are indications that the current Greek text, the earliest extant form, is a revision of an earlier one. Justin the Martyr – The First and Second Apology of Justin Chapter 35-“And that these things did happen, you can ascertain from the Acts of Pontius Pilate.” The Apology letters were written and addressed by name to the Roman Emperor Pius and the Roman Governor Urbicus. All three of these men lived between 138-161. [edit]Minor Pilate literature

Bronze coin of Pontius Pilate, Jerusalemmint, 26-36 CE. There is a pseudepigrapha letter reporting on the crucifixion, purporting to have been sent by Pontius Pilate to the Emperor Claudius, embodied in the pseudepigrapha known as the Acts of Peter and Paul, of which the Catholic Encyclopedia states, “This composition is clearly apocryphal though unexpectedly brief and restrained.” There is no internal relation between this feigned letter and the 4th-century Acts of Pilate (Acta Pilati). This Epistle or Report of Pilate is also inserted into thePseudo-Marcellus Passio sanctorum Petri et Pauli(“Passion of Saints Peter and Paul”). We thus have it in both Greek and Latin versions. The Mors Pilati (“Death of Pilate”) legend is a Latin tradition, thus treating Pilate as a monster, not a saint; it is attached usually to the more sympathetic Gospel of Nicodemus of Greek origin. The narrative of the Mors Pilati set of manuscripts is set in motion by an illness of Tiberius, who sends Volusanius to Judaea to fetch the Christ for a cure. In Judaea Pilate covers for the fact that Christ has been crucified, and asks for a delay. But Volusanius encountersVeronica who informs him of the truth but sends him back to Rome with her Veronica of Christ’s face on her kerchief, which heals Tiberius. Tiberius then calls for Pontius Pilate, but when Pilate appears, he is wearing the seamless robe of the Christ and Tiberius’ heart is softened, but only until Pilate is induced to doff the garment, whereupon he is treated to a ghastly execution. His body, when thrown into the Tiber, however, raises such storm demons that it is sent to Vienne (via gehennae) in France and thrown to the Rhone. That river’s spirits reject it too, and the body is driven east into “Losania”, where it is plunged in the bay of the lake near Lucerne, near Mont Pilatus — originally Mons Pileatusor “cloud-capped”, as John Ruskin pointed out in Modern Painters — whence the uncorrupting corpse rises every Good Friday to sit on the bank and wash unavailing hands. This version combined with anecdotes of Pilate’s wicked early life were incorporated in Jacobus de Voragine‘s Golden Legend, which ensured a wide circulation for it in the later Middle Ages. Other legendary versions of Pilate’s death exist: Antoine de la Sale reported from a travel in central Italy on some local traditions asserting that after death the body of Pontius Pilate was driven until a little lake near Vettore Peak (2478 m in Sibillini Mounts ) and plunged in. The lake, today, is still named Lago di Pilato. In the Cornish cycle of mystery plays, the “death of Pilate” forms a dramatic scene in the Resurrexio Domini cycle. More of Pilate’s fictional correspondence is found in the minor Pilate apocrypha, theAnaphora Pilati (Relation of Pilate), an Epistle of Herod to Pilate, and an Epistle of Pilate to Herod, spurious texts that are no older than the 5th century.

[edit]Veneration

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the 6th century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate,[27] as it does his wife, Claudia Procula, whose strange dream ofChrist induced her to try and stop his crucifixion.

[edit]Portrayals

Plays and films dealing with life of Jesus Christ often include the character of Pontius Pilate due to the central role he played in the final days of Christ’s life. Writers have found various reasons to make Pilate a main character and to fill in any unknown details of his life. Pilate has been portrayed in a number of different ways by various writers:

  1. A weak and harried bureaucrat
  2. A hard governor who rules with an iron fist
  3. A man who clearly sees how the story of Jesus will affect human history
  4. A man who regrets his role in Jesus’ death (to greater or lesser extents, depending on the work)
  5. A man who is oblivious to the significance of the Galilean he condemns to death
  6. A tired governor who doesn’t care and wants Jesus out of his hands
  • Pilate appears in the Mystery Plays and Passion Plays, the most notable being in the Cornish cycle in which he is summoned to Rome by Tiberius and sentenced to death for killing Jesus because this crime cannot be contained by earth, sea or water and so immediately proceeds (body and soul, rather than just soul) to hell.
  • In the Vestibule of Hell in Dante‘s Divine Comedy, a figure is seen “who made the great refusal”. This is interpreted to be either Pontius Pilate or Pope Celestine V.
  • Pontius Pilate is portrayed in Mikhail Bulgakov‘s The Master and Margarita as being ruthless, complex, and yet human; the novel describes his meeting with Jesus the Nazarene, his recognition of an affinity with and spiritual need for him, and his reluctant but resigned and passive handing over of him to those who wanted to kill him. Here Pilate exemplifies the statement “Cowardice is the worst of vices”, and thus serves as a model, in an allegorical interpretation of the work, of all the people who have “washed their hands” by silently or actively taking part in the crimes committed by Joseph Stalin.
    • This novel inspired the song “Sympathy for the Devil” by The Rolling Stones. The title of this song, and its lyrics, seem to be derived from Bulgakov’s portrayal of the Devil. Pilate is referenced in the verse: “And I was around when Jesus Christ / had his moment of doubt and pain / made damn sure that Pilate / washed his hands, and sealed his fate”.[28][29]
    • The Master and Margarita and Pilate are also referred to in the Pearl Jam song “Pilate“, on the album Yield.
    • Pilate appears in three stories in Karel Čapek‘s collection Apocryphal Tales. In “Pilate’s Evening”, the weary governor wonders why Jesus’ friends and relatives did not come to try and save him, and wishes that they had. “Pilate’s Creed” features a dialogue between Pilate and Joseph of Arimathea. Their argument reflects the conflict between sceptical humanism (Pilate’s famous “What is truth?”) and religious certainty (Joseph’s reply, “The truth in which I believe”). “The Crucifixion” features a world-weary Pilate disgusted with the political machinations that led to Jesus’ condemnation.
    • Simon Perry’s historical thriller All Who Came Before (2011), is structured around a plot to assassinate the Prefect of Judea, Pilatus. The plot follows the resistance figure, Barabbas, who is driven to commit acts of terror when witnessing the fruit of Pilatus’ actions. Although Pilate himself appears only briefly at the climax, his fingerprints are woven through the novel.
    • In Roger Caillois‘ short novel Pontius Pilate (1961), Pilate is portrayed as a vacillating colonial administrator who, during the day after Jesus’ arrest, receives advice from his wife, from Judas Iscariot and from a Chaldaean friend who has amassed an immense knowledge of the world’s various religions. In the end, he is shown as “a man who despite every hindrance succeeded in being brave”.
    • In The Flame and the Wind, a novel by John Blackburn, the aged Pilate is wracked by guilt over Jesus’ death and directs his heir to find out if Jesus was really the Son of God.
    • In the Anatole France short story The Procurator of Judaea, Pilate has retired to Sicily to become a gentleman farmer. This story is an example of the “oblivious” interpretation of Pilate. He has forgotten everything about Jesus and the part that he (Pilate) played in his trial.
    • The Dutch writer Simon Vestdijk‘s 1938 novel De nadagen van Pilatus (The Last Days of Pilate) presents an account of Pilate’s life after the crucifixion.
    • Ann Wroe‘s Pontius Pilate: The Biography of an Invented Man is an attempt to provide the obscure official with a biography suitable to the man who is so influential to the Christian story. **The Royal Shakespeare Company debuted a performance piece called The Pilate Workshop in the summer of 2004, which attempted to cast Wroe’s research in the form of a mystery play.
    • Pilate is mentioned in the theme song for Marvel Comics‘ Nextwave series in a list of enemies, along with a monster, a pirate, an electric emu, a giant sky-rat, and a midget Hitler.[citation needed]
    • Retired California politician James R. Mills wrote a novel titled Gospel According to Pontius Pilatein 1978. Pilate is described as an ordinary, cynical politician whose primary concern is to keep the local population content and maintain social order, rather than particular sense of rightness.
    • In the rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar, Pilate has three songs. In “Pilate’s Dream”, he foresees that history will mention his name and leave him the blame of Jesus’ death. In the song “Pilate and Christ”, an arrogant and mocking Pilate perhaps realizing manipulation by the Sanhedrin, tries to prevent Jesus’ death by sending Jesus to Herod. “You’re Herod’s race! You’re Herod’s case!”. In the song “Trial Before Pilate”, a sympathetic Pilate pleads with Jesus to speak to him, saying that he believes the accused has “done no wrong” but “ought to be locked up” for insanity. Receiving no answer from the silent Jesus, Pilate eventually grows exasperated and tells him, “Die if you want to, you misguided martyr.” Barry Dennen played Pilate on the “Brown Album”, on Broadway and in the 1973 film version of the musical, directed by Norman Jewison, with Fred Johanson taking the role in the 2000 re-make, directed by Gale Edwards.
    • The Collection of Short Stories The Night Chicago Died by Tom Wessex contains a story entitled “An Afternoon on Skull Hill“, in which the author supposes that Gestas, one of the thieves crucified with Christ, was in fact Pilate’s illegitimate son.
    • Pontius Pilate is mentioned in the drama The Crucible by Arthur Miller. Protagonist John Proctor yells “Pontius Pilate! God will not let you wash your hands of this!”, to Reverend Hale as Proctor’s wife is being arrested.
    • In Nicolas Notovith’s “The Lost Years of Jesus” (1894), an apocryphal Gospel he claims to have found in the Leh lamasery, Ladak, Pilatus is seen as an evil man and the Jews as mild and compassionate.
    • In the 2004 Superman storyline “For Tomorrow“, a story with strong messianic themes, a priest dying of cancer (and a confidant of Superman) is transformed into a biological war machine, codenamed “Pilate”, and rampages through a paradise dimension created by Superman. He retains enough of his humanity to regret his murders and sacrifices himself.
    • In Jeffrey Archer‘s 1980 collection of short stories A Quiver Full of Arrows, one of the stories, “The First Miracle” tells of how a 12-year-old Pontius Pilate meets Joseph and Mary as they arrive inBethlehem, and gives them the food that his mother had sent him to buy.
    • In Toni Morrison‘s book Song of Solomon, Pilate is the name of Macon Dead’s sister
    • Friedrich Nietzsche wrote that Pilate is the one powerful personality in the Gospels.
    • Hungarian psychologist Péter Popper wrote a novel in 1997 Peloni or the Testament of Pilate in which Pilate portrays himself as a cultivated Roman bewildered by Judea and the Jews, who experienced some of the divine power of Jesus and executed him on Jesus’s own impulse.
    • Pilatus is the central figure in The Karma Killers a 2009 novel by Angelo Paratico [30]
    • In the 2006 musical event Pilate is portrayed by Keith Allen [1]

[edit]Portrayals in film

  • In the 1935 film The Last Days of Pompeii, Pilate (played by Basil Rathbone) is portrayed as a man consumed with guilt over having crucified Jesus.
  • Richard Boone played a calm and stern, though, slightly guilt-ridden Pilate in The Robe (1953). His action in condemning Jesus is particularly singled out as unjust by the principal character Marcellus.
  • Frank Thring portrayed a somewhat jaded though shrewd Pilate in Ben-Hur (1959). He is a good friend of Judah Ben-Hur’s Roman adoptive father Quintus Arrius, but he reminds Ben-Hur that he wields the emperor’s own authority to keep peace in Judea.
  • Hurd Hatfield portrayed Pilate in Nicholas Ray‘s film King of Kings (1961). The film portrays an overtly militaristic Pilate — his caravan is attacked by Barabbas and his followers in the movie — and he is also characterised as being vain and aloof. His interest in the life and actions of Jesusbefore his trial and crucifixion, listening to detailed reports, is fanciful historically.
  • Jean Marais portrayed Pilate in Irving Rapper‘ film Pontius Pilate (1962).
  • Telly Savalas portrayed Pilate in George Stevens‘ film The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965) as a gruff strongman. Although Pilate would prefer to crucify Barabbas rather than Jesus, he is not portrayed as being especially sympathetic towards Jesus. As Jesus is led out to crucifixion, Pilate is portrayed as thinking the words of the Apostles’ Creed: “suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried.” Angela Lansbury played his wife Claudia Procula in one of the many cameo roles in the film.
  • Barry Dennen, in Norman Jewison‘s musical Jesus Christ Superstar (1973), portrayed a cruel Pilate who after suffering a prophetic dream is very reluctant to put Christ to death, but succumbs to mob pressures.
  • Rod Steiger portrayed Pilate in Franco Zeffirelli‘s TV miniseries Jesus of Nazareth (1977). In this version, Pilate is angered by Jesus’ refusal to defend himself. After condemning Jesus to death, Pilate is told by one of his aides that he cannot release Barabbas, “an assassin and enemy of Rome.” Pilate replies, “I wonder…Who is the real enemy?” In Anthony Burgess‘s novel Man of Nazareth, based on Jesus of Nazareth, Pilate is portrayed as being more sympathetic towards Jesus, recognising the validity of his doctrine and even telling Jesus he is free to go, although Jesus tells Pilate he has to condemn him to death.
  • In the comedy film Monty Python’s Life of Brian (1979), Pilate is portrayed by Michael Palin as a foolish man who has trouble pronouncing the letter “r” (pronouncing it like a “w”). He is also unable to remember who is in his prisons, and seems to be easily offended, as in the scene where he feels his guards are “insulting” his friend Biggus Dickus when they laugh at his name. Pilate later chides the Jewish crowds for laughing at Biggus Dickus’ lisp, telling them “This man commands a cwack legion!” and “He wanks as high as any in Wome!” It has also been speculated that his impediment is the reason the crowd chose Barabbas over Jesus in the Passion narrative.[31]
  • David Bowie portrayed Pilate in Martin Scorsese‘s The Last Temptation of Christ (1988), based on the novel by Nikos Kazantzakis. In the film, Pilate is portrayed as world-weary and somewhat sympathetic towards Jesus, but believes he has to die to preserve the local status quo.
  • In the 1999 film Jesus, Pilate is played by Gary Oldman as a cynical manipulator of the events surrounding Christ’s death.
  • In the 2000 re-make of Jesus Christ Superstar for video, Pilate was played by Dutch-born actor Fred Johanson.
  • In Mel Gibson‘s The Passion of the Christ (2004), Pilate is played by Bulgarian actor Hristo Shopov. Pilate speaks fluent Aramaic as well as Latin (his first language) in this film. He is extremely reluctant to sentence Jesus to death and appears very sympathetic to him. This is partly because of his wife Claudia’s strange dreams and the value he places on superstition. As a result, he only condemns Jesus to death when he feels that he has no other option. He is visibly shocked and fightened of the Jewish mob’s relentlessness when he is asked to crucify Jesus and release Barrabas.
References

[edit]Primary sourcesThe references to Pilate, outside the New Testament:

[edit]Secondary sources

  • Bond, Helen K., Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation (2004).
  • Carter, Warren, Pontius Pilate: Portraits of a Roman Governor (2003).
  • Taylor, Joan E. “Pontius Pilate and the Imperial Cult in Roman Judaea,” New Testament Studies52 (2006) 555-582.
  • Wroe, Ann, Pilate: The Biography of an Invented Man (1999).
[edit]Notes
  1. ^ Britannica Online: Pontius Pilate
  2. ^ http://www.livius.org/jo-jz/judaea/judaea.htm
  3. a b c Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  4. ^ http://www.bible-history.com/empires/pilate.html
  5. a b Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiae ii: 7
  6. ^ Agapius, Universal History trans. A. Vasiliev, 1909.http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/agapius_history_02_part2.htm
  7. ^ The word Tiberieum is otherwise unknown: some scholars speculate that it was some kind of structure, perhaps a temple, built to honor the emperor Tiberius.
  8. ^ Inventory number is AE 1963 no. 104
  9. ^ Herry Vardaman, “A New Inscription Which Mentions Pilate as “Prefect,”” Journal of Biblical Literature 81 (1962) 70-71.
  10. ^ H.H. Ben-SassonA History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, page 246: “When Archelauswas deposed from the ethnarchy in 6 CE, Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea were converted into a Roman province under the name Iudaea.”
  11. ^ law.umkc.edu
  12. ^ “Administrative and military organization of Roman Palestine”. Retrieved 2008-12-24.
  13. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=ElINAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=classical+roman+law+blasphemy&source=bl&ots=CyKy2iZbQN&sig=kD9puUh_WZSXd5mBEUYJYoG8c_s&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result#PPA111,M1
  14. ^ http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=luke%2023:1-2&version=31
  15. ^http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Majestas.html
  16. ^ http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke%2019:1-9%20;&version=31;
  17. ^ Miller, 49–50.
  18. ^ Wise, Isaac Mayer (1880). History of the Hebrews’ Second Commonwealth: With Special Reference to Its Literature, Culture, and the Origin of Rabbinism and Christianityv. 41; v. 992. Bloch & co..
  19. a b c Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus SeminarThe five gospels.HarperSanFrancisco. 1993.
  20. ^ Josephus, Jewish War 2.9.2-4
  21. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia article on Pilate, retrieved 5 May 2009
  22. a b Philo, On The Embassy of Gauis Book XXXVIII 299-305
  23. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.3.2
  24. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.4.1
  25. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.4.2
  26. ^ http://www.suscopts.org/q&a/index.php?qid=1120&catid=564
  27. ^  “Pontius Pilate“. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
  28. ^http://dir.salon.com/story/ent/masterpiece/2002/01/14/sympathy/index.html
  29. ^http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6595877/sympathy_for_the_devil
  30. ^ http://www.amazon.com/dp/1440142653
  31. ^http://classicfilm.about.com/od/comedies/fr/Life_of_Brian.htm
[edit]External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pontius Pilate

Pontius Pilate

Roman Rulers of Judaea

Preceded by Valerius Gratus

Prefect of Iudaea 26–36

Succeeded by Marcellus

Categories1st-century BC births | 1st-century deaths | 1st-century Romans | Ancient Jewish Roman history | Roman governors of Judaea | New Testament people | Oriental Orthodox saints |Eastern Orthodox saints | Jesus and history | 1st-century Christian saints

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યહુદા ઈસ્કોરિયોતી નો પ્રભુ યીશુ માટે વિશ્વસઘાત (લુકા.૨૨)

૧.   અખમીરી રોટલી નો પર્વ જે ફસહ (મિસ્ત્રની ગુલામીમાંથી આઝાદી તરફ પાસ ઓવર) કહેવાય છે, એ નિકટ આવ્યો હતો.

૨.   અને મહાયાજકો અને શાસ્ત્રીઓ એ વાતની ખોજમાં હતા કે પ્રભુ યીશુને કેવી રીતે મારી નાંખીએ, પરંતુ તેઓ લોકોથી ડરતા હતા.

૩.   અને સૈતાન યહુદા ઈકોરીયોતીમાં સમાયો, જે પ્રભી યીશુના બાર ચેલાઓમાં ગણતો હતો (અને ધનની લેવડદેવડ સંભાળતો હતો જેમા ગફલત કરવી સૈતાનનુ જ કામ છે).

૪.  એણે જઈને મહાયાજકો અને પહેરેદારોના સરદાર સાથે વાતચીત કરી કે, પ્રભુ યીશુને કેવી રીતે પકડાવશે.

૫.   પાપીઓ આનંદિત થયા, અને એને રુપિયા આપવાનુ વચન આપ્યુ.

૬.   યહુદાએ માની લીધુ, અને અવસરની રાહ જોવા લાગ્યો કે કેવી રીતે વિના ઉપદ્રવ પ્રભુ યીશુને પકડાવી દે.

પ્રભુ યીશુનુ ચેલાઓ જોડે ફસહનુ અંતિમ ભોજ

૭.   ત્યારે અખમીરી રોટલીના પર્વનો દિવસ આવી લાગ્યો, જેમા ફસહનો મેમ્નો (પ્રભુ પોતે જ) બલિ કરવો આવશ્યક હતો.

૮.    અને પ્રભુ યીશુએ પીટર અને જ્હોનને એવુ કહીને મોક્લ્યા, કે જઈને આપણા જમવા માટે ફસહ તૈયાર કરો.

૯.   ચેલાઓએ કહ્યુ કે એ જમણવાર આપ કઈ જગ્યાએ ચાહો છો કે અમે જઈને બનાવીએ.

૧૦.  પ્રભુએ ચેલાઓથી કહ્યુ કે જુઓ નગરમા પ્રવેશ કરતા જ એક મનુષ્ય જળનો ઘડો ઉઠાવેલો તમને મળશે, એ જે ઘરમાં એ જાય, તમે એની પાછળ ચાલ્યા જજો.

૧૧.   અને એ ઘરના માલિકને કહેજો, કે ગુરુ તમારાથી પુછે છે કે; એ અતિથીગ્રુહ ક્યા છે જેમાં હુ મારા ચેલાઓ જોડે ફસહ જમીએ?

૧૨.  તે તમને એક સજેલી ધજેલી મોટી અટારી દેખાડ્શે; ત્યા તમે તૈયરી કરજો.

(આ બધુ પહેલાથી જ સ્વપ્ન દ્વારા એ માલિકને પરમેશ્વરે દેખાડી રાખેલુ, કેમ કે બધુજ પરમેશ્વરની ભવિષ્યવાણીની યોજના પ્રમાણે  થઈ રહ્ય છે)

૧૩.  ચેલાઓએ જઈને, જેવુ પ્રભુએ તેઓને કહ્યુ હતુ એવુ જ ભાળ્યુ, અને ફસહ તૈયાર કર્યુ.

પ્રભુ ભોજ

૧૪.  જ્યારે એ ઘડી આવી પહોચી, તો પ્રભુ પોતાના પ્રેરિતોની જોડે જમવા બેઠા.

૧૫.  અને પ્રભુએ તેઓને કહ્યુ કે “મને ઘણી લાલસા હતી, કે દુઃખ-ભોગવતા પહેલા આ ફસહ તમારી જોડે જમુ”

૧૬.  “કેમ કે હુ તમને કહુ છુ કે જ્યા સુધી એ પરમેશ્વરના રાજ્યમાં પુરુ ન થાય, ત્યા સુધી હુ એને નહિ જમીશ.

૧૭.  ત્યારે પ્રભુએ કટોરો લઈને (પરમેશ્વરને) ધન્યવાદ કર્યા, અને કહ્યુ, “આને લો અને આપસમાં વહેંચી લો.

૧૮.   “કેમ કે હુ તમારાથી (પ્રતિજ્ઞા)  કહુ છુ,  કે જ્યા સુધી પરમેશ્વરનુ રાજ્ય ના આવે ત્યા સુધી હુ દ્રાક્ષરસ હવેથી ક્યારેય નહિ પીઉ.”

૧૯.  પછી પ્રભુએ રોટલી લીધી અને પરમેશ્વરને ધન્યવાદ કરીને તોડી, અને ચેલાઓને એવુ કહેતા કહેતા આપી, કે “આ મારો દેહ છે, જે તમારા માટે (બલિદાન) આપવામાં આવે છે; મારા સ્મરણ માટે આવુ જ કર્યા કરજો.

૨૦.  એવી જ રીતે, પ્રભુએ બીયારી પછી કટોરો પણ એવુ કહેતા કહેતા ચેલાઓને આપ્યો કે “આ કટોરો મારુ એ રક્ત, જે તમારી(મુક્તિ) માટે વહેવડાવવામાં આવશે, નવી પ્રતિજ્ઞા છે.”

૨૧.  પણ જુઓ મારો પકડાવનારનો હાથ મારી સાથે મેજ પર છે.

૨૨.  “કેમ કે મનુષ્યના પુત્ર માટે જેવુ એના માટે (ભવિષ્યવાણીમાં પહેલેથી જ) ભાખેલુ છે, જાય જ છે, પરંતુ હાય એ મનુષ્ય પર, જેના દ્વારા મને પકડાવી દેવાશે.”

૨૩.   ત્યારે ચેલાઓ આપસમાં પુછ્પાછ કરવા લાગ્યા, કે આપણામાંથી કોણ છે, જે આવુ કામ કરશે.?

૨૪.   તેઓમાં આ વાદ-વિવાદ પણ થયો; કે આપણામાંથી કોણ વડો ઠરશે?

૨૫.  પ્રભુએ ચેલાઓને કહ્ય કે “અન્ય જાતિઓના રાજાઓ તેમના ઉપર પ્રભુતા કરતા હોય છે, અને જે તેઓના પર અધિકાર રાખે છે, તેઓ ઉપકારક કહેવાય છે.”

૨૬.   “પરંતુ તમે એવા ના થજો, પરંતુ જે તમારામાં વડો થવા માંગે, એ દીન બને અને જે પ્રધાન છે, એ સહુનો દાસ બને.”

વડો કોણ?

૨૭. “કેમ કે વડો કોણ છે; એ જ, જે ભોજન પર બેઠેલો છે અથવા, એ, કે જે સેવા કરે છે? શુ એ નહિ જે ભોજન પર બેઠેલો છે? પરંતુ હુ…. તમારી વચ્ચે (તમારો) સેવક જ છુ.”

૨૮. “પરંતુ તમે તે છો, જે મારી પરિક્ષાઓ અને સતાવ માં લગાતાર મારી જોડે જ રહેલા.”

૨૯.  “અને જેવી રીતે મારા પિતાએ મારા માટે એક રાજ્ય ઠરાવ્યુ છે.”

૩૦.  “એવી જ રીતે હુ પણ તમારા માટે ઠરાવુ છુ, જેથી તમે મારા રાજ્યમાં મારી મેજ ઉપર ખાઓ-પિઓ; અને એથીયે વધુ, સિંહાસન પર બીરાજીને ઈઝરાયેલના બાર ગોત્રો નો ન્યાય કરો.”

પીટરના ઈન્કાર વિશે

૩૧.  સાઈમન, હે સાઈમન, જો, સૈતાને તમને માંગી લીધા છે કે ઘઉના જેમ તમને ફટકે.

૩૨.  પરંતુ મે તારા માટે વિનંતી કરી છે, કે તારો વિશ્વાસ જતો ના રહે; અને જ્યારે તુ ફરે, તો તારા ભાઈઓને સ્થિર કરજે.

૩૩.  પીટરે પ્રભુને કહ્યુ, હે પ્રભુ, હુ તમારી જોડે બંદિગ્રુહ જવા, અને  એથીયે વધુ, મરવા પણ તૈયાર છુ.

૩૪.  પ્રભુએ કહ્યુ, “હે પીટર હુ તને કહ્ય છુ કે આજે મરઘો બાંગ ન આપશે જ્યા સુધી તો ત્રણ વખત મારો ઈન્કાર ન કરી લઈશ કે હુ પ્રભુને નથી જાણતો.”

૩૫.  અને પ્રભુએ ચેલાઓથી કહ્યુ “જ્યારે મે તમને થેલી, અને ઝોળી, અને ખાસડા વગર મોક્લ્યા હતા, તો શુ તમને કોઈ વસ્તુની જરુર પડી હતી?” ચેલાઓએ કહ્યુ; કોઈ વસ્તુની નહિ.

૩૬.  પ્રભુએ કહ્યુ; “પરંતુ હવે જેની પાસે થેલી હોય એને લઈલે, અને એવી રીતે ઝોળી પણ, અને જેની પાસે તલવાર ન હોય એ પોતાના કપડા વેચીને એક ખરીદી લે”

૩૭.  કેમ કે હુ તમને કહુ છુ, કે આમ જે (ભવિષ્યવાણીમાં) લખેલુ છે, કે પ્રભુ અપરાધિઓમાં ગણયો, એ મારામાં પુરુ થવુ આવશ્યક છે; કેમ કે મારા વિશેની (ભવિષ્યવાણીની) વાતો પુરી થવાની અણી પરજ છે.”

૩૮.  ચેલાઓએ કહ્યુ; હે પ્રભુ, જુઓ અહિયા બે તલવાર છે; પ્રભુએ કહ્યુ કે “ઘણુ છે.”

૩૯.  ત્યાર પછી પ્રભુ બહાર નીકળીને પોતાની રીતી અનુસાર જૈતુન પહાડ પર ગયા, અને ચેલાઓ પ્રભુની પાછળ જવા લાગ્યા.

૪૦.  એ જગ્યા પર પહોંચીને પ્રભુ ચેલાઓથી કહ્યુ કે “પ્રાર્થના કરો, જેથી તમે પરિક્ષામાં ના પડો.”

૪૧.  અને પ્રભુ પોતે ચેલાઓથી અલગ એક ઢેફળું ફેંકાય એટલે દુર જઈને ઘુટણ ટેકવીને પ્રાર્થના કરવા લાગ્યા.

૪૨.  કે “હે પિતા જો તમે ચાહો તો આ કટોરો મારી પાસે થી હ્ટાવી લો, તો પણ મારી નહિ પરંતુ તમારી જ ઈચ્છા પુરી થજો.” (વધુ માટે જ્હોન ૧૩,૧૪,૧૫,૧૬,૧૭ જે અતિ મહત્વના અધ્યાયો છે વાંચી લેવા વિનંતિ કરુ છુ)

૪૩.  ત્યારે સ્વર્ગમાંથી એક દુત પ્રભુની પાસે દેખાણો જે પ્રભુને સામર્થ અને સાંત્વન આપતો જણાતો હતો.

૪૪.  અને પ્રભુ અત્યંત સંકટમાં વ્યાકુળ થઈને વધુ જોરથી પ્રર્થના કરવા લાગી ગયા, અને એમનો પસીનો જાણે લોહીના મોટા મોટા બુંદો ની જેમ જમીન પર પડી રહ્યા હતા.

૪૫.  ત્યાર પછી પ્રભુ પ્રાર્થના કરીને ઉઠ્યા અને ચેલાઓની પાસે આવીને તેઓની ઉદાસીના માર્યા સુતેલા ભાળ્યા અને તેઓથી કહ્યુ, “કેમ સુતા છો.”

૪૬.  “ઉઠો અને પ્રાર્થના કરો, કે પરિક્ષામાં ના પડો.”

પ્રભુ યીશુનુ કપટથી પકડાઈ જવુ

૪૭.  પ્રભુ આમ કહિ જ રહ્યા હતા, કે જુઓ  એક ભીડ આવી, અને એ બાર ચેલાઓમાંથી એક, જેનુ નામ યહુદા હતુ, તેઓની આગળ આગળ આવી રહ્યો હતો, એ પ્રભુ યીશુની પાસે આવ્યો જેથી પ્રભુને ચુમી લે.

૪૮.  પ્રભુ યેશુએ એને કહ્યુ, “હે યહુદા, શુ તુ ચુમી લઈને મનુષ્યના પુત્રને પકડાવે છે?

૪૯.  પ્રભુના સાથીઓએ જ્યારે આ જોયુ તો કહ્યુ; હે પ્રભુ, શુ અમે તલવાર ચલાવીએ?

૫૦.  અને તેઓમાના એકે તો મહાયાજકના દાસ ઉપર ચલાવીને એનો ડાબો કાન જ ઉડાવી નાખ્યો.

૫૧.  પ્રભુ યીશુએ એને કહ્યુ, હવે બસ કરો; અને એના કાનને અડીને એને હતો એવો સાજો કરી નાખ્યો.

૫૨.   ત્યારે પ્રભુ યીશુએ મહાયાજકો અને મંદિરના પહેરેદારો ના સરદારો અને પુરાણીઓથી, જે પ્રભુ પર ચડી આવેલા, કહ્યુ “શુ તમે મને ડાકુ જાણીને તલવારો અને લાઠીઓ લઈને નિકળ્યા છો?”

૫૩.   જ્યારે હુ મંદિરમાં દરરોજ તમારી સાથે હતો, ત્યારે તમે મારા ઉપર હાથ ન નાંખ્યો; પરંતુ.. આ તમારી ઘડી છે, અને અંધકારનો અધિકાર છે.

પીટર દ્વારા પ્રભુ નો ઈન્કાર

૫૪.   પછી તેઓ પ્રભુને પકડીને લઈ ચાલ્યા, અને મહાયાજક ના ઘરમાં લાવ્યા અને પીટર દુર દુરથી જ તેઓની પાછળ પાછળ ચાલતો હતો.

૫૫.   અને ત્યારે તેઓ આંગણામાં તાપણુ સળગાવીને એકઠા બેઠા, તો પીટર પણ એ લોકોની વચ્ચે બેસી ગયો.

૫૬.    અને એક લોંડી પીટરને આગના અજવાળામાં બેઠેલો જોઈને અને એની તરફ તાકીને કહેવા લાગી, આ પણ તો પ્રભુની સાથે હતો.

૫૭.    પરંતુ પીટરે એમ કહીને ઈન્કાર કર્યો કે, હે નારી, હુ એને નથી જાણતો.

૫૮.    થોડીવાર પછી બીજા કોઈએ પીટરને જોઈને કહ્યુ, તુ પણ તો તેઓમાનો એક છે; પીટરે કહ્યુ, હે મનુષ્ય, એ હુ નથી જ.

૫૯.    કોઈ એક પહોર પછી એક મનુષ્ય દ્રઢતાથી કહેવા લાગ્યો, નિશ્ચય આ પણ તો એમની સાથે હતો; કેમ કે આ પણ તો ગલીલી છે.

૬૦.    પીટરે કહ્યુ, હે મનુષ્ય, હુ નથી જાણતો કે તુ શુ કહે છે? પીટર કહી જ રહ્યો હતો કે તુર્ત જ મરઘાએ બાંગ દીધી.

૬૧.    ત્યારે પ્રભુ યીશુએ ઘુમીને પીટર તરફ જોયુ, અને પીટરને પ્રભુની એ વાત યાદ આવી જે પ્રભુએ કહી હતી, કે આજે મરઘો બાંગ દેવા પહેલા, તુ ત્રણ વખત મારો ઈન્કાર કરીશ.

૬૨.    અને પીટર ફુટી ફુટીને રડવા લાગ્યો.

મહાસભાની સામે પ્રભુ યીશુ

૬૩.    જે માણસોએ પ્રભુ યીશુને પકડ્યા હતા, તેઓ પ્રભુને ઠઠ્ઠામાં ઉડાવી પીટવા લાગ્યા.

૬૪.   અને પ્રભુની આંખો (હાથેથી દાબીને) બંદ કરીને પ્રભુથી પુછ્યુ, કે ભવિષ્યવાણી કરીને બતાવ કે તમને કોણે માર્યુ.

૬૫.   અને તેઓએ ઘણી વધુ નિન્દનીય વાતો પ્રભુની વિરુધ્ધમાં કહી.

૬૬.    જ્યારે દિવસ નીકળી આવ્યો તો લોકોના નેતાઓ અને મહાયાજક અને શાસ્ત્રી એકઠાં થઈ ગયા, અને પ્રભુને તેઓની મહાસભામાં લાવીને પુછ્યુ.

૬૭.    જો તમે મસીહા છો, તો અમને કહી દો ! પ્રભુએ તેઓથી કહ્યુ, “જો હુ તમને કહુ, તો વિશ્વાસ નહિ કરશો.”

૬૮.   “અને જો પુછુ તો ઉત્તર નહિ આપશો.”

૬૯.   “પરંતુ હવેથી મનુષ્યનો પુત્ર સર્વશક્તિમાન પરમેશ્વરના ડાબે જ બેસે છે.”

૭૦.  આના પર સહુએ કહ્યુ, તો શુ તમે પરમેશ્વ્રરના પુત્ર છો? પ્રભુએ કહ્યુ; “તમે જ, પોતે કહી રહ્યા છો, કેમ કે હુ છુ.”

૭૧.   ત્યારે તેઓએ કહ્યુ, હવે આપણે વધુ ગવાહીનુ શુ પ્રયોજન છે; કેમ કે આપણે પોતે જ એમના મોઢે જ સાંભળી લીધુ છે.

પિલાતસ ની સામે પ્રભુ યીશુ (લુકા. ૨૩)

૧.    ત્યારે આખી સભા ઉઠીને પ્રભુને પિલાતસ પાસે લઈ ગઈ.

૨. અને તેઓ એવુ કહીને દોષ લગાડવા લાગ્યા કે અમે જ આમને લોકોને બહેકાવતા અને કૈસરને કર આપવાની મનાઈ કરતા અને પોતાને જ મસીહ, રાજા કહેતા સાંભળ્યા છે.

૩.   પિલાતસે પ્રભુને પુછ્યુ, શુ તમે યહુદીઓના રાજા છો? પ્રભુએ તેને કહ્યુ, “તમે પોતે જ કહી રહ્યા છો.”

૪. ત્યારે પિલાતસે મહાયાજકો અને લોકોથી કહ્યુ કે મને તો આ મનુષ્યમાં કોઈ જ દોષ નથી જણાતો.

૫.  પરંતુ તેઓ તો વધુ દ્રઢતાથી કહેવા લાગ્યા, આ ગલીલ થી લઈને અહિયા સુધી આખા યહુદિયામાં ઉપદેશ દઈ દઈને લોકોને ભડકાવે છે.

૬.   આ સાંભળીને પિલાતસે પુછ્યુ, શુ આ મનુષ્ય ગલીલી છે?

૭.  અને એ જાણીને કે પ્રભુ તો હેરોદેસની રિયાસતના છે, તો પ્રભુને હેરોદેસ પાસે મોકલાવી દિધા.

હેરોદેસની સામે પ્રભુ યીશુ

૮.   હેરોદેસ પ્રભુ યીશુને જોઈને ખુબજ પ્રસન્ન થયો, કેમ કે ઘણા દિવસોથી પ્રભુને જોવા માંગતો હતો; એ માટે કે પ્રભુના વિશે સાંભળ્યુ હતુ, અને એમના ચમત્કારો જોવાની આશા રાખતો હતો.

૯.   એ પ્રભુથી ઘણુ પુછતો રહ્યો, પરંતુ પ્રભુએ એને કોઈ ઉત્તર જ ના   આપ્યો.

૧૦.  અને મહાયાજક અને શાસ્ત્રીઓ ઉભા રહીને તન મનથી પ્રભુ ઉપર દોષ લગાડતા રહ્યા.

૧૧.   ત્યારે હેરોદેસે પોતાના સિપાહીઓ સાથે પ્રભુનુ અપમાન કરીને ઠઠ્ઠામાં ઉડાવ્યા, અને ભડકીલુ વસ્ત્ર પહેરાવી પ્રભુને પિલાતસ પાસે પાછા મોકલાવી દિધા.

પ્રભુ યીશુ ફરીથી પિલાતસની સામે

૧૨.  એ દિવસથી પિલાતસ અને હેરોદેસ મિત્ર બની ગયા, એના પહેલા એ બન્ને એકબીજાના શત્રુ હતા. (ચમત્કાર જુઓ !!)

૧૩.   પિલાતસે મહાયાજક અને સરદારો અને લોકોને બોલાવી તેઓથી કહ્યુ.

૧૪.  તમે આ મનુષ્યને લોકોને ભડકાવનાર ઠહેરાવીને મારી પાસે લાવ્યા છો, અને જુઓ, મે તમારી સામે જ એમની જાંચ કરી, પરંતુ જે વાતોનો તમે એના ઉપર દોષ લગાવો છો, એ વાતોનો તો મને કોઈ દોષ એમનામાં જણાતો નથી.

૧૫.  અને ના તો હેરોદેસે (એમને દોષી જાણ્યા), કેમ કે એણે પણ પ્રભુને મારી પાસે પાછા મોકલાવી દિધા છે; અને જુઓ, એમણે એવુ કાંઈ પણ નથી કર્યુ કે તેઓ મ્રુત્યુ દંડને યોગ્ય ઠરે.

૧૬.   એટલે હુ એમને પિટવીને છોડી મુકુ છુ.

૧૭.   પિલાતસ પર્વના સમય એમના આ એક બંદીને છોડવાની પ્રતિજ્ઞા પર વિવશ હતો.

૧૮.   ત્યારે સહુ મળીને બુમાબુમ કરવા લાગ્યા, કે આનુ કામ તમામ કરો, અને અમારા માટે બરાબ્બા (નામના ગુંડાને) છોડી મુકો.

૧૯.   જે, કોઈ બળવાના કારણે, જે નગરમાં થયો હ્તો, અને હત્યાના કારણે બંદિગ્રુહમાં નાંખવામાં આવ્યો હતો.

૨૦.  પિલાતસે પ્રભુ યીશુને છોડવાની ઈચ્છાથી ફરીથી લોકોને સમજાવ્યા.

૨૧.  પરંતુ લોકોએ ચિલ્લાઈને કહ્યુ, કે પ્રભુને જ શુળી ઉપર ચડાવો, શુળી પર !

૨૨.  પિલાતસે તીસરી વખત તેઓથી કહ્યુ; કેમ, એમણે શુ બુરાઈ કરી છે? મે એમનામાં મ્રુત્યુ યોગ્ય કોઈ વાત નથી જોઈ. એટલે હુ એમને પિટવીને છોડી દઉ છુ.

૨૩.  પરંતુ તેઓ તો ચિલ્લાઈ ચિલ્લાઈને પાછળ જ પડી ગયા કે પ્રભુ યીશુને શુળી પર ચઢાવવાંમાં આવે, અને તેઓની બુમાબુમ ખુબ જ પ્રબળ બની ગઈ.

૨૪.  એટલે હતાશ પિલાતસે આગ્યા આપી, કે તેઓની વિનતિ અનુસાર કરવામાં આવે.

૨૫.  અને પિલાતસે એ મનુષ્યને જે બળવો અને હત્યા કરીને બંદિગ્રુહમાં નાંખવામાં આવ્યો હતો, અને જેને લોકો માંગી રહ્યા હતા; છોડી મુક્યો; અને પ્રભુ યીશુને લોકોની ઈચ્છાનુસાર સિપાઈઓને સોંપી દિધા.

પ્રભુ યીશુને શુળી પર વધ

૨૬.  જ્યારે પાપીઓ પ્રભુ યેશુને (વજનદાર શુળી ખભે ઉઠાવેલા ઢસડીને) લઈ જઈ રહ્યા હતા, ત્યારે તેઓએ એક સાઈમન નામનો એક કુરૈનીને જે ગાંમમાંથી આવી રહ્યો હતો પકડીને એના ઉપર શુળીને લાદી દિધી જેથી એ (શુળી ઉઠાવીને થાકીને લોથ પોથ થઈ ગયેલા) પ્રભુ યીશુની (મદદમાં) પાછળ પાછળ ચાલે.

૨૭.  અને લોકોની જબરી ભીડ તેઓની પાછળ થઈ ગઈ, અને ઘણી સ્ત્રીઓ પણ, જે પ્રભુ યીશુ માટે છાતી કુટતી અને વિલાપ કરી રહી હતી.

૨૮.  પ્રભુ યીશુએ તેઓની તરફ ફરીને કહ્યુ, “હે યેરુશલેમની પુત્રીઓ, મારા માટે ના રડો; પરંતુ પોત પોતાના બાળકો માટે રડો.”

૨૯.  કેમ કે  જુઓ, એ દિવસો આવી રહ્યા છે, જેમા લોકો કહેશે, ધન્ય છે એ વાંઝણી, અને એ ગર્ભ જે જનમ્યા જ નહિ અને એ સ્તનો જેણે દુધ જ ના પિવડાવ્યુ.

૩૦.  એ સમય લોકો પહાડોથી કહેવા લાગશે, કે અમારી ઉપર આવી પડો, અને ડુંગરોથી કહેશે કે અમને દાંટી દો.

૩૧.  કેમ કે આ લોકો હર્યા ભર્યા વ્રુક્ષ સાથે આવુ કરે છે, તો સુક્કા ની સાથે શુ શુ નહિ કરશે?”

૩૨.  તેઓ વધુ બે મનુષ્યોને જે કુકર્મી હતા પ્રભુની સાથે વધ કરવા સાથે લઈ લીધા.

૩૩.  જ્યારે બધા લોકો એ જગ્યા જેને ખોપડી કહે છે, આવી પહુચ્યાં, તો તેઓએ ત્યા પ્રભુ યીશુ અને બીજા બે કુકર્મીઓને પણ એક ને જમણે અને એકને પ્રભુની ડાબે શુળી પર ચડાવ્યા.

(શુળી લગભગ ૭-૮ ફુટ પહોળી અને 20-૨૫ ફુટ ઉંચી હોય છે, એના ઉપર હાથ ફેલાવી હથેળી અને પગમાં માં જ મોટા મોટા ખિલાઓ ઠોકીને, અને ઘુંટણ હથોડા મારી મારીને તોડવામાં આવે છે અને જ્યાં સુધી પ્રાણ ન જાય ત્યા સુધી લટકાવવાં આવે છે, જેંમાં ઘણા દ્રોહીઓ તો સાત આઠ દિવસો સુધી લટકેલા કણસ્યા જ કરતા હોય એવા દાખલાઓ જાણવામાં આવ્યા છે. દુષ્ટ રોમનોના દ્રોહીઓને આવી જ રીતે મ્રુત્યુ દંડ આપવામાં આવતો હતો, પરંતુ પ્રભુ યીશુ રોમનોના દ્રોહી ન હતા પરંતુ ઈઝરાયેલ પર ત્યારે રોમનોનુ જ રાજ હતુ જેમને યહુદિ ધર્માધીકારીઓએ પોતાનો ધંધો વિફળ થવાથી રોમનોને ભડકાવ્યા હતા અને પ્રભુ યીશુ જે પવિત્ર, સામર્થી, પ્રેમી, દયાળુ, આજન્મ કુંવારા હતા એમને મરાવી નાંખ્યા, ફક્ત પ્રભુ યીશુ ને આમાનુ કાંઈ જ ન કરવુ પડ્યુ, કેમ કે તેઓ પોતે જ ઈચ્છા મ્રુત્યુ ધરાવતા હતા)

૩૪.  ત્યારે પ્રભુ યીશુએ કહ્યુ, “હે પિતા, આ લોકોને ક્ષમા કર, કેમ કે તેઓ નથી જાણતાં કે શુ કરી રહ્યા છે?” અને પાપીઓએ ચીઠ્ઠી નાખી પ્રભુના કપડાને બાંટી લીધા.

૩૫.  લોકો ઉભા ઉભા જોઈ રહ્યા હતા, અને સરદારો પણ ઠઠ્ઠા કરીને કહેતા હતા, કે આમણે બીજાઓને બચાવ્યા, જો તેઓ જ પરમેશ્વરના મસીહા છે, અને પરમેશ્વ્રરના જ ચુનેલા છે, તો પોતે જ પોતાને બચાવી લે.

૩૬.  સિપાઈ પણ પાસે આવીને અને સિરકો દઈને પ્રભુની ઠઠ્ઠા કરીને કહેતા હતા.

૩૭.  જો તમે યહુદિયોના રાજા છો, તો પોતે જ પોતાને બચાવો.

૩૮.  અને પ્રભુની ઉપર જ એક તામ્રપત્ર લાગેલુ હતુ; “આ યહુદિઓના રાજા છે.

પ્રભુ યીશુનો પ્રાણત્યાગ (માર્ક ૧૫.૩૩-૪૭)

૩૩.  અને બીજા પહોર (બપોર) થવા પર, આખા દેશમાં અંધકાર છવાય ગયો, અને ત્રીજા પહોર સુધી રહ્યો.

૩૪.  ત્રીજા પહોરે પ્રભુ યીશુએ મોટે અવાજે પુકારીને કહ્યુ, “ઈલોઈ, ઈલોઈ, લમા શબક્તની ! જેનો અર્થ છે; “હે મારા પરમેશ્વ્રર, હે મારા પરમેશ્વર, તમે મને કેમ છોડી દિધો?

૩૫.  જે લોકો પાસે ઉભા હતા, એમાં કેટલાકે સાંભળીને કહ્યુ, જુઓ એ એલિયાહ ને બોલાવે છે.

૩૬.  અને એકે દોડીને સ્પંજને સિરકામાં ડબોળી, અને એને ભાલા પર રાખીને પ્રભુને ચુસાવ્યો, અને કહ્યુ, થોભો જરા, જોઈએ, કે એલિયાહ એને ઉતારવા આવે છે કે નહિ.

૩૭. ત્યારે પ્રભુ યીશુએ ચિલ્લાઈને કહ્યુ, “હે પિતા, હુ મારો આત્મા આપના હાથમાં સોંપુ છુ” કહીને પોતાના પ્રાણ છોડી દિધા.

૩૮.   અને મંદિરનો પર્દો ઉપરથી લઈને નીચે સુધી ફાટીને બે ટુકડા થઈ ગયો અને ધરતી ધ્રુજી ઉઠી અને ચટ્ટાનો ના ટુકડા થઈ ગયા.

(મેથ્યુ ૨૭)

૫૨.  અને જુઓ કબરો ખુલી ગઈ; અને એમા સુતેલાઓ પવિત્ર લોકોની ઘણી લોથો જાગી ઉઠી.

૫૩.  અને પ્રભુના જીવી ઉઠતાની સાથે જ એ પવિત્ર લોકો કબરોમાંથી નિકળીને પવિત્ર નગરમાં ગયા, જે ઘણા લોકોને નજરે જ દેખાણા હતા.

૫૪.   જે સુબેદાર પ્રભુની સામે ઉભો હતો એ અને એની સેના સાથે પહેરો દઈ રહેલાઓએ, ધરતીકંપ અને જે કાંઈ થયુ હતુ, એ જોઈને અત્યંત ડરી ગયા અને, જ્યારે પ્રભુને આવી રીતે ચિલ્લાઈને પ્રાણ છોડતા ભાળ્યા, તો એણે કહ્યુ, કે “નિશ્ચય આ જ પરમેશ્વરનો પુત્ર હતો.

લુકા.૨૩.૪૮  અને ભીડ જે આ બધુ જોવા એકઠી થઈ હતી, આ ઘટનાને જોઈને છાતી-કુટતી કુટતી પાછી જતી રહી.

મેથ્યુ. ૫૫.  ત્યા ઘણી સ્ત્રીઓ જે ગલીલથી પ્રભુ યીશુની સેવા કરતી પ્રભુની જોડે જ આવી હતી, દુર થી આ બધુ જોઈ રહી હતી.

૫૬.   તેમાં મરિયમ  મગદલીની અને જેકોબ અને યોસેસની માતા મરિયમ અને જબદી નો પુત્રોની માતા હતી.

પ્રભુ યીશુનુ દફન (લુકા ૨૩.૫૦, મેથ્યુ૨૭.૫૭)

મે.૫૭. જ્યારે સાંજ થઈ તો યુસુફ નામનો અરીમતિયાહ નો એક ધની મનુષ્ય જે પોતે જ પ્રભુ યીશુનો ચેલો હતો આવ્યો; અને પિલાતસ પાસે જઈને પ્રભુ યીશુની લોથ માંગી.

૫૮.  આના પર પિલાતસે દઈ દેવાની આજ્ઞા આપી.

૫૯.  યુસુફે લોથ લઈને સફેદ ઉજ્વળ ચાદરમાં લપેટ્યા.

૬૦.  અને એને પોતાની નવી જ કબરમાં રાખી, જે એણે જ પથ્થરની મોટી (નાનકડી ગુફા જેવી) ચટ્ટાનમાં ખોદાવડાવી હતી, અને ક્બરના દ્વાર ઉપર એક મોટો પથ્થર સરકાવરાવીને જતો રહ્યો.

૬૧.  અને મરીયમ મગદલીની અને બીજી મરીયમ (પ્રભુની માતા) ત્યા કબર ની સામે બેઠી હતી.

કબર પર પહેરો

૬૨.  બીજે દિવસે જે તૈયારીના દિવસ પછીનો દિવસ હતો, મહાયાજકો અને ફરીસિયો (પાપીઓ) પિલાતસ પાસે એકઠા થઈને કહેવા લાગ્યા.

૬૩.  હે મહારાજ, અમને સ્મરણ છે, કે આ ભરમાવનારાએ પોતાના જીવતે જીવતા કહ્યુ હતુ , કે હુ ત્રણ દિવસ પછી જીવી ઉઠીશ.

૬૪.  એટ્લે હુકમ કરો કે ત્રીજા દિવસ સુધી કબરની રખવાળી કરવામાં આવે, એવુ ન થાય કે એમના ચેલાઓ આવીને ચોરી જાય અને લોકોને કહેવા માંડે કે એ મરેલામાંથી જીવી ઉઠ્યા છે; ત્યારે તો પાછલો દગો પહેલા દગા કરતા પણ બુરો હશે.

૬૫.  પિલાતસે એમને કહ્યુ, તમારી પાસે પહેરેદારો તો છે જ, જાઓ, તમારી સમજ પ્રમાણે જ રખવાળી કરો.

૬૬.   એટલે તેઓ પહેરેદારોને સાથે લઈને જતા રહ્યા અને પથ્થર પર મહોર લગાવીને કબરની રખવાળી કરી.

(ફક્ત પરમેશ્વરની ખરી સંતાન જ આ વાતને માની શકશે અને અપનાવશે અને જે ના અપનાવે એ તો પોતે જ અંધકારમાં જકડાયેલા છે, તેઓએ એ અંધકાર વિશે વિચારી લેવુ)

*दिन गिनने की समझ* Ps-90:12

*विशेष संदेश*

*दिन गिनने की समझ* Ps-90:12

भजन 90:9 👇👇👇
क्योकि हमारे सब *दिन* तेरे (परमेश्वर के) क्रोध में बीते जाते हैं, हम अपने वर्ष शब्द की नाई बिताते हैं।

हम ऐसा क्या कर रहे हैं कि हमारा एक-एक *दिन* परमेश्वर के क्रोध में बीत रहा है। ऐसा नहीं कि हम जानते नहीं, हम सब जानते मगर बड़ी नादानी से अपनी इस गलती का इल्ज़ाम खुदा (परमेश्वर) पर लगा देते हैं यह कह कर कि,
*वो हमारी तो सुनता ही नही।*
(जरूरत है वजह जानने की कि सबकी सुनी जा रही है तो मेरी क्यों नहीं?)

भजन- 96:2 के अनुसार
यहोवा के लिए गाओ, उसके नाम को धन्य कहो; *दिन-दिन* उसके किए हुए उद्धार का *शुभ समाचार* सुनाते रहो।

*दिन-दिन* यानि प्रतिदिन या यूँ कहे तो अच्छा होगा कि *कोई मौका (अवसर) न चूकें*

अगर हम ऐसा 👆नहीं कर रहे तो हम क्या कर रहे हैं?

आईये जानें
शैतान आरम्भ ही से मनुष्य को परमेश्वर से दूर करने और ले जाने में लगा है (उत्पत्ति की घटना हम सब जानते हैं)
6000 वर्ष बाद भी शैतान का कब्जा मनुष्य के स्वतंत्र विचारों पर है वह आज भी मनुष्य को अपने हाथ की कठपुतली बना कर नचा रहा है और मजे की बात यह है कि हम नाच भी रहे हैं।

*जब परमेश्वर हमें शैतान के हाथो से नाचते देखता होगा तो कितना रोता होगा?*
👆यह बात सोचने की नहीं अहसास करने की है।

शैतान ने हर क्षेत्र मे, हर परिवेश मे और हर परिस्थिति में मनुष्य की भावनाओ से खिलवाड़ किया है, और आज के माहोल मे तो उसकी यह हरकत चरम पर है।
अब शैतान ने वह *दिन* मनुष्यों से छीन लिए है जिन *दिनों मे हमेे परमेश्वर मे लगा होना चाहिए।*

*क्योकि यीशु मसीह के आने का दिन निकट है*

आईये देखें हमारे *दिन* कहा और कैसे व्यतीत हो रहे हैं?

मनुष्य+शैतान द्वारा बनाए गए स्पैशल *दिन6g*
यह वह *दिन* हैं जिनमें मनुष्य शैतान की हाँ मे हाँ मिला कर थिरक रहा है ।

Feb 7:
Rose Day

Feb 8:
Propose Day

Feb 9:
Chocolate Day
.
Feb 10:
Teddy Day
.
Feb 11:
Promise Day
.
Feb 12
Hug Day
.
Feb 13
Kiss Day ___
.
Feb 14
Valentine Day

*यह वह दिन हैं जिनमे हम अपने दुःख और प्रार्थना भूल कर शैतान की आँखों में चमक पैदा करते हैं इसका जीता जागता सुबूत हैं Whatsapp पर हमारे मस्ती भरे स्टेटस और विशेष दिन से संबंधित हमारी dp*

ऐसी परिस्थिति में क्या हमारी प्रार्थनाएं सुनी जाएंगी? हमारे पास्टर की प्रार्थना भी तभी सुनी जाएगी जब हमारा चरित्र सही होगा हम प्रभु के प्रति गंभीर होंगे वरना चाहे हमारा पास्टर कितने ही उपवास रखले कितने ही घुटने घिस ले कितने ही आँसू बहा ले प्रभु नही सुनेगा *क्योकि हमने परमेश्वर के पवित्र दिन शैतान के हाथों गिरवी रखवा दिये या बेच डाले हैं।*
यह सभी शैतानी दिन हमें याद रहते हैं और हम इन विशेष दिनो मे चमकदार आँखों के साथ अति उत्साहित होते हैं और बड़ी गर्म जोशी के साथ Wish भी करते है।
शर्म की बात है न यह? यही बेशर्मी हमे परमेश्वर से दूर ले जा रही है और उस से अलग होकर तो हम कुछ कर ही नहीं सकते। (John-15:5)

मगर
क्या हमे यह 👇 *दिन* याद हैं?

*यहोवा का दिन* यशा-2:12, 13:6

 

*उद्धार का दिन* 2, करि-6:2

*यीशु का दिन* फिल-1:6

*प्रभु का दिन* 1, थिस्स-5:2

*प्रायश्चित का दिन* लैव्य-23:27

और सबसे बड़ी बात
क्या हम अपने *बपतिस्मे का दिन* भूल गए जब हमने संसार और संसारिकता को छोड़ कर *प्रभु यीशु मसीह को अपना Valentine बनाया था* और *यीशु के दिवाने* हो गये थे।
या यह सब यीशु से अपने *काम* निकलवाने के लिए हमने किया था?
(यह विषय गंभीरता से सोचने का है)

कुछ सवाल:-
क्या हमने अपने *बपतिस्मे और उद्धार* का दिन Celebrate किया है?

क्या अपनी जिंदगी के इस स्पैशल दिन में हमने चर्च में विशेष प्रार्थना रखवाई है?

क्या हमने इस दिन की सालगिरह मनाई है?

क्या इस दिन की सालगिरह पर हमने अपने पास्टर को घर बुला के प्रार्थना करवाई है?

अगर नही तो यह शैतानी दिनों की खुशी मनाने से पहले सोचने का विषय है।

👆यह मैसेज मेरा विरोध नही बल्कि मेरे विचार और मार्ग दर्शन है।
🙏धन्यवाद🙏

प्रभु यीशु मे आपका भाई

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